The entorhinal cortex (EC) is the primary site of interactions between the neocortex and hippocampus. Studies in rodents and nonhuman primates suggest that EC can be divided into subregions that connect differentially with perirhinal cortex (PRC) vs parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and with hippocampal subfields along the proximo-distal axis. Here, we used high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla to identify functional subdivisions of the human EC. In two independent datasets, PRC showed preferential intrinsic functional connectivity with anterior-lateral EC and PHC with posterior-medial EC. These EC subregions, in turn, exhibited differential connectivity with proximal and distal subiculum. In contrast, connectivity of PRC and PHC with subiculum followed not only a proximal-distal but also an anterior-posterior gradient. Our data provide the first evidence that the human EC can be divided into functional subdivisions whose functional connectivity closely parallels the known anatomical connectivity patterns of the rodent and nonhuman primate EC.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Cerebral Cortex
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 4595 to 4612
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Multimodal evidence suggests that brain regions accumulate information over timescales that vary according to anatomical hierarchy. Thus, these experimentally defined “temporal receptive windows” are longest in cortical regions that are distant from sensory input. Interestingly, spontaneous activity in these regions also plays out over relatively slow timescales (i.e., exhibits slower temporal autocorrelation decay). These findings raise the possibility that hierarchical timescales represent an intrinsic organizing principle of brain function. Here, using resting-state functional MRI, we show that the timescale of ongoing dynamics follows hierarchical spatial gradients throughout human cerebral cortex. These intrinsic timescale gradients give rise to systematic frequency differences among large-scale cortical networks and predict individual-specific features of functional connectivity. Whole-brain coverage permitted us to further investigate the large-scale organization of subcortical dynamics. We show that cortical timescale gradients are topographically mirrored in striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum. Finally, timescales in the hippocampus followed a posterior-to-anterior gradient, corresponding to the longitudinal axis of increasing representational scale. Thus, hierarchical dynamics emerge as a global organizing principle of mammalian brains.
The insula plays a fundamental role in a wide range of adaptive human behaviors, but its electrophysiological dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we used human intracranial electroencephalographic recordings to investigate the electrophysiological properties and hierarchical organization of spontaneous neuronal oscillations within the insula. We analyzed the neuronal oscillations of the insula directly and found that rhythms in the theta and beta frequency oscillations are widespread and spontaneously present. These oscillations are largely organized along the anterior–posterior (AP) axis of the insula. Both the left and right insula showed anterior-to-posterior decreasing gradients for the power of oscillations in the beta frequency band. The left insula also showed a posterior-to-anterior decreasing frequency gradient and an anterior-to-posterior decreasing power gradient in the theta frequency band. In addition to measuring the power of these oscillations, we also examined the phase of these signals across simultaneous recording channels and found that the insula oscillations in the theta and beta bands are traveling waves. The strength of the traveling waves in each frequency was positively correlated with the amplitude of each oscillation. However, the theta and beta traveling waves were uncoupled to each other in terms of phase and amplitude, which suggested that insular traveling wavesmore »
Objective: To examine the hypothesis that constant speed is more comfortable than variable speed profiles and may minimize cybersickness. Background: Current best practices for virtual reality (VR) content creation suggest keeping any form of acceleration as short and infrequent as possible to mitigate cybersickness. Methods: In Experiment 1, participants experienced repetitions of simulated linear motion, and in Experiment 2, they experienced repetitions of a circular motion. Three speed profiles were tested in each experiment. Each trial lasted 2 min while standing. Cybersickness was measured using the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) and operationally defined in terms of total severity scores. Postural stability was measured using a Wii Balance Board and operationally defined in terms of center of pressure (COP) path length. Postural measures were decomposed into anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes and subjected to detrended fluctuation analysis. Results: For both experiments, no significant differences were observed between the three speed profiles in terms of cybersickness or postural stability, and none of the baseline postural measures could predict SSQ scores for the speed profile conditions. An axis effect was observed in both experiments such that normalized COP movement was significantly greater along the anterior-posterior axis than the medial-lateral axis. Conclusion: Results showed nomore »
Functional Differentiation of Dorsal and Ventral Posterior Parietal Cortex of the Rat: Implications for Controlled and Stimulus-Driven AttentionAbstract The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is important for visuospatial attention. The primate PPC shows functional differentiation such that dorsal areas are implicated in top–down, controlled attention, and ventral areas are implicated in bottom–up, stimulus-driven attention. Whether the rat PPC also shows such functional differentiation is unknown. Here, we address this open question using functional neuroanatomy and in vivo electrophysiology. Using conventional tract-tracing methods, we examined connectivity with other structures implicated in visuospatial attention including the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (LPn) and the postrhinal cortex (POR). We showed that the LPn projects to the entire PPC, preferentially targeting more ventral areas. All parts of the PPC and POR are reciprocally connected with the strongest connections evident between ventral PPC and caudal POR. Next, we simultaneously recorded neuronal activity in dorsal and ventral PPC as rats performed a visuospatial attention (VSA ) task that engages in both bottom–up and top–down attention. Previously, we provided evidence that the dorsal PPC is engaged in multiple cognitive process including controlled attention (Yang et al. 2017). Here, we further showed that ventral PPC cells respond to stimulus onset more rapidly than dorsal PPC cells, providing evidence for a role in stimulus-driven, bottom–up attention.