One of the fundamental problems in Artificial Intelligence is to perform complex multihop logical reasoning over the facts captured by a knowledge graph (KG). This problem is challenging, because KGs can be massive and incomplete. Recent approaches embed KG entities in a low dimensional space and then use these embeddings to find the answer entities. However, it has been an outstanding challenge of how to handle arbitrary firstorder logic (FOL) queries as present methods are limited to only a subset of FOL operators. In particular, the negation operator is not supported. An additional limitation of present methods is also that they cannot naturally model uncertainty. Here, we present BETAE, a probabilistic embedding framework for answering arbitrary FOL queries over KGs. BETAE is the first method that can handle a complete set of firstorder logical operations: conjunction (∧), disjunction (∨), and negation (¬). A key insight of BETAE is to use probabilistic distributions with bounded support, specifically the Beta distribution, and embed queries/entities as distributions, which as a consequence allows us to also faithfully model uncertainty. Logical operations are performed in the embedding space by neural operators over the probabilistic embeddings. We demonstrate the performance of BETAE on answering arbitrary FOLmore »
Query2box: Reasoning Over Knowledge Graphs In Vector Space Using Box Embeddings
Answering complex logical queries on largescale incomplete knowledge graphs (KGs) is a fundamental yet challenging task. Recently, a promising approach to this problem has been to embed KG entities as well as the query into a vector space such that entities that answer the query are embedded close to the query. However, prior work models queries as single points in the vector space, which is problematic because a complex query represents a potentially large set of its answer entities, but it is unclear how such a set can be represented as a single point. Furthermore, prior work can only handle queries that use conjunctions (^) and existential quantifiers (9). Handling queries with logical disjunctions (_) remains an open problem. Here we propose QUERY2BOX, an embeddingbased framework for reasoning over arbitrary queries with ^, _, and 9 operators in massive and incomplete KGs. Our main insight is that queries can be embedded as boxes (i.e., hyperrectangles), where a set of points inside the box corresponds to a set of answer entities of the query. We show that conjunctions can be naturally represented as intersections of boxes and also prove a negative result that handling disjunctions would require embedding with dimension proportional more »
 Award ID(s):
 1835598
 Publication Date:
 NSFPAR ID:
 10198852
 Journal Name:
 International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR)
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
More Like this


Logical queries constitute an important subset of questions posed in knowledge graph question answering systems. Yet, effectively answering logical queries on large knowledge graphs remains a highly challenging problem. Traditional subgraph matching based methods might suffer from the noise and incompleteness of the underlying knowledge graph, often with a prolonged online response time. Recently, an alternative type of method has emerged whose key idea is to embed knowledge graph entities and the query in an embedding space so that the embedding of answer entities is close to that of the query. Compared with subgraph matching based methods, it can better handle the noisy or missing information in knowledge graph, with a faster online response. Promising as it might be, several fundamental limitations still exist, including the linear transformation assumption for modeling relations and the inability to answer complex queries with multiple variable nodes. In this paper, we propose an embedding based method (NewLook) to address these limitations. Our proposed method offers three major advantages. First (Applicability), it supports four types of logical operations and can answer queries with multiple variable nodes. Second (Effectiveness), the proposed NewLook goes beyond the linear transformation assumption, and thus consistently outperforms the existing methods. Thirdmore »

We study danglingaware entity alignment in knowledge graphs (KGs), which is an underexplored but important problem. As different KGs are naturally constructed by different sets of entities, a KG commonly contains some dangling entities that cannot find counterparts in other KGs. Therefore, danglingaware entity alignment is more realistic than the conventional entity alignment where prior studies simply ignore dangling entities. We propose a framework using mixed highorder proximities on danglingaware entity alignment. Our framework utilizes both the local highorder proximity in a nearest neighbor subgraph and the global highorder proximity in an embedding space for both dangling detection and entity alignment. Extensive experiments with two evaluation settings shows that our method more precisely detects dangling entities, and better aligns matchable entities. Further investigations demonstrate that our framework can mitigate the hubness problem on danglingaware entity alignment.

Consider an algorithm performing a computation on a huge random object (for example a random graph or a "long" random walk). Is it necessary to generate the entire object prior to the computation, or is it possible to provide query access to the object and sample it incrementally "onthefly" (as requested by the algorithm)? Such an implementation should emulate the random object by answering queries in a manner consistent with an instance of the random object sampled from the true distribution (or close to it). This paradigm is useful when the algorithm is sublinear and thus, sampling the entire object up front would ruin its efficiency. Our first set of results focus on undirected graphs with independent edge probabilities, i.e. each edge is chosen as an independent Bernoulli random variable. We provide a general implementation for this model under certain assumptions. Then, we use this to obtain the first efficient local implementations for the ErdösRényi G(n,p) model for all values of p, and the Stochastic Block model. As in previous localaccess implementations for random graphs, we support VertexPair and NextNeighbor queries. In addition, we introduce a new RandomNeighbor query. Next, we give the first localaccess implementation for AllNeighbors queries inmore »

Answering complex natural language questions on knowledge graphs (KGQA) is a challenging task. It requires reasoning with the input natural language questions as well as a massive, incomplete heterogeneous KG. Prior methods obtain an abstract structured query graph/tree from the input question and traverse the KG for answers following the query tree. However, they inherently cannot deal with missing links in the KG. Here we present LEGO, a Latent ExecutionGuided reasOning framework to handle this challenge in KGQA. LEGO works in an iterative way, which alternates between (1) a Query Synthesizer, which synthesizes a reasoning action and grows the query tree stepbystep, and (2) a Latent Space Executor that executes the reasoning action in the latent embedding space to combat against the missing information in KG. To learn the synthesizer without stepwise supervision, we design a generic latent execution guided bottomup search procedure to find good execution traces efficiently in the vast query space. Experimental results on several KGQA benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework compared with previous state of the art.