- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 23960 to 23969
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Background: Diapause is a seasonal dormancy that allows organisms to survive unfavorable conditions and optimizes the timing of reproduction and growth. Emergence from diapause reverses the state of arrested development and metabolic suppression returning the organism to an active state. The physiological mechanisms that regulate the transition from diapause to post-diapause are still unknown. In this study, this transition has been characterized for the sub-arctic calanoid copepod Neocalanus flemingeri, a key crustacean zooplankter that supports the highly productive North Pacific fisheries. Transcriptional profiling of females, determined over a two-week time series starting with diapausing females collected from > 400m depth, characterized the molecular mechanisms that regulate the post-diapause trajectory. Results: A complex set of transitions in relative gene expression defined the transcriptomic changes from diapause to post-diapause. Despite low temperatures (5–6 °C), the switch from a “diapause” to a “post-diapause” transcriptional profile occurred within 12 h of the termination stimulus. Transcriptional changes signaling the end of diapause were activated within one-hour post collection and included the up-regulation of genes involved in the 20E cascade pathway, the TCA cycle and RNA metabolism in combination with the down-regulation of genes associated with chromatin silencing. By 12 h, females exhibited a post-diapause phenotypemore »
Can the genomics of ecological speciation be predicted across the divergence continuum from host races to species? A case study in RhagoletisStudies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether and how host-related selection on diapause timing associates with genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species Rhagoletis mendax that attacks blueberries. The associations of 57 857 single nucleotide polymorphisms in a diapause genome-wide-association study (GWAS) on the hawthorn race strongly predicted the direction and magnitude of genomic divergence among the three fly populations at a field site in Fennville, MI, USA. The apple race and R. mendax show parallel changes in the frequencies of putative inversions on three chromosomes associated with the earlier fruiting times of apples and blueberries compared to hawthorns. A diapause GWAS on R. mendax revealed compensatory changes throughout the genome accounting for the earlier eclosion of blueberry, but not apple flies. Thus, a degree of predictability, although not complete, exists in the genomics of diapause across the ecological speciation continuum in Rhagoletis . Themore »
INTRODUCTION Transposable elements (TEs), repeat expansions, and repeat-mediated structural rearrangements play key roles in chromosome structure and species evolution, contribute to human genetic variation, and substantially influence human health through copy number variants, structural variants, insertions, deletions, and alterations to gene transcription and splicing. Despite their formative role in genome stability, repetitive regions have been relegated to gaps and collapsed regions in human genome reference GRCh38 owing to the technological limitations during its development. The lack of linear sequence in these regions, particularly in centromeres, resulted in the inability to fully explore the repeat content of the human genome in the context of both local and regional chromosomal environments. RATIONALE Long-read sequencing supported the complete, telomere-to-telomere (T2T) assembly of the pseudo-haploid human cell line CHM13. This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »
Many arthropods undergo a seasonal dormancy termed “diapause” to optimize timing of reproduction in highly seasonal environments. In the North Atlantic, the copepod
Calanus finmarchicuscompletes one to three generations annually with some individuals maturing into adults, while others interrupt their development to enter diapause. It is unknown which, why and when individuals enter the diapause program. Transcriptomic data from copepods on known programs were analyzed using dimensionality reduction of gene expression and functional analyses to identify program-specific genes and biological processes. These analyses elucidated physiological differences and established protocols that distinguish between programs. Differences in gene expression were associated with maturation of individuals on the reproductive program, while those on the diapause program showed little change over time. Only two of six filters effectively separated copepods by developmental program. The first one included all genes annotated to RNA metabolism and this was confirmed using differential gene expression analysis. The second filter identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were consistently up-regulated in individuals on the diapause program in comparison with those on the reproductive program. Annotated to oogenesis, RNA metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, these genes are both indicators for diapause preparation and good candidates for functional studies.
Calanus copepods are keystone species in marine ecosystems, mainly due to their high lipid content, which is a nutritious food source for e.g. juvenile fish. Accumulated lipids are catabolized to meet energy requirements during dormancy (diapause), which occurs during the last copepodite stage (C5). The current knowledge of lipid degradation pathways during diapause termination is limited. We characterized changes in lipid fullness and generated transcriptional profiles in C5s during termination of diapause and progression towards adulthood. Lipid fullness of C5s declined linearly during developmental progression, but more β-oxidation genes were upregulated in early C5s compared to late C5s and adults. We identified four possible master regulators of energy metabolism, which all were generally upregulated in early C5s, compared to late C5s and adults. We discovered that one of two enzymes in the carnitine shuttle is absent from the calanoid copepod lineage. Based on the geographical location of the sampling site, the field-samples were initially presumed to consist of C. finmarchicus. However, the identification of C. glacialis in some samples underlines the need for performing molecular analyses to reliably identify Calanus species. Our findings contributes to a better understanding of molecular events occurring during diapause and diapause termination in calanoid copepods.