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Title: Genome-wide variation and transcriptional changes in diverse developmental processes underlie the rapid evolution of seasonal adaptation
Many organisms enter a dormant state in their life cycle to deal with predictable changes in environments over the course of a year. The timing of dormancy is therefore a key seasonal adaptation, and it evolves rapidly with changing environments. We tested the hypothesis that differences in the timing of seasonal activity are driven by differences in the rate of development during diapause in Rhagoletis pomonella , a fly specialized to feed on fruits of seasonally limited host plants. Transcriptomes from the central nervous system across a time series during diapause show consistent and progressive changes in transcripts participating in diverse developmental processes, despite a lack of gross morphological change. Moreover, population genomic analyses suggested that many genes of small effect enriched in developmental functional categories underlie variation in dormancy timing and overlap with gene sets associated with development rate in Drosophila melanogaster . Our transcriptional data also suggested that a recent evolutionary shift from a seasonally late to a seasonally early host plant drove more rapid development during diapause in the early fly population. Moreover, genetic variants that diverged during the evolutionary shift were also enriched in putative cis regulatory regions of genes differentially expressed during diapause development. Overall, more » our data suggest polygenic variation in the rate of developmental progression during diapause contributes to the evolution of seasonality in R. pomonella . We further discuss patterns that suggest hourglass-like developmental divergence early and late in diapause development and an important role for hub genes in the evolution of transcriptional divergence. « less
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Award ID(s):
1639005 1638951 1638997
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
23960 to 23969
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Background: Diapause is a seasonal dormancy that allows organisms to survive unfavorable conditions and optimizes the timing of reproduction and growth. Emergence from diapause reverses the state of arrested development and metabolic suppression returning the organism to an active state. The physiological mechanisms that regulate the transition from diapause to post-diapause are still unknown. In this study, this transition has been characterized for the sub-arctic calanoid copepod Neocalanus flemingeri, a key crustacean zooplankter that supports the highly productive North Pacific fisheries. Transcriptional profiling of females, determined over a two-week time series starting with diapausing females collected from > 400m depth, characterized the molecular mechanisms that regulate the post-diapause trajectory. Results: A complex set of transitions in relative gene expression defined the transcriptomic changes from diapause to post-diapause. Despite low temperatures (5–6 °C), the switch from a “diapause” to a “post-diapause” transcriptional profile occurred within 12 h of the termination stimulus. Transcriptional changes signaling the end of diapause were activated within one-hour post collection and included the up-regulation of genes involved in the 20E cascade pathway, the TCA cycle and RNA metabolism in combination with the down-regulation of genes associated with chromatin silencing. By 12 h, females exhibited a post-diapause phenotypemore »characterized by the up-regulation of genes involved in cell division, cell differentiation and multiple developmental processes. By seven days post collection, the reproductive program was fully activated as indicated by up-regulation of genes involved in oogenesis and energy metabolism, processes that were enriched among the differentially expressed genes. Conclusions: The analysis revealed a finely structured, precisely orchestrated sequence of transcriptional changes that led to rapid changes in the activation of biological processes paving the way to the successful completion of the reproductive program. Our findings lead to new hypotheses related to potentially universal mechanisms that terminate diapause before an organism can resume its developmental program.« less
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This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »a comprehensive repeat annotation workflow using previously known human repeats and de novo repeat modeling followed by manual curation, including assessing overlaps with gene annotations, segmental duplications, tandem repeats, and annotated repeats. Using this method, we developed an updated catalog of human repetitive sequences and refined previous repeat annotations. 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  4. Abstract

    Many arthropods undergo a seasonal dormancy termed “diapause” to optimize timing of reproduction in highly seasonal environments. In the North Atlantic, the copepodCalanus finmarchicuscompletes one to three generations annually with some individuals maturing into adults, while others interrupt their development to enter diapause. It is unknown which, why and when individuals enter the diapause program. Transcriptomic data from copepods on known programs were analyzed using dimensionality reduction of gene expression and functional analyses to identify program-specific genes and biological processes. These analyses elucidated physiological differences and established protocols that distinguish between programs. Differences in gene expression were associated with maturation of individuals on the reproductive program, while those on the diapause program showed little change over time. Only two of six filters effectively separated copepods by developmental program. The first one included all genes annotated to RNA metabolism and this was confirmed using differential gene expression analysis. The second filter identified 54 differentially expressed genes that were consistently up-regulated in individuals on the diapause program in comparison with those on the reproductive program. Annotated to oogenesis, RNA metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis, these genes are both indicators for diapause preparation and good candidates for functional studies.

  5. Calanus copepods are keystone species in marine ecosystems, mainly due to their high lipid content, which is a nutritious food source for e.g. juvenile fish. Accumulated lipids are catabolized to meet energy requirements during dormancy (diapause), which occurs during the last copepodite stage (C5). The current knowledge of lipid degradation pathways during diapause termination is limited. We characterized changes in lipid fullness and generated transcriptional profiles in C5s during termination of diapause and progression towards adulthood. Lipid fullness of C5s declined linearly during developmental progression, but more β-oxidation genes were upregulated in early C5s compared to late C5s and adults. We identified four possible master regulators of energy metabolism, which all were generally upregulated in early C5s, compared to late C5s and adults. We discovered that one of two enzymes in the carnitine shuttle is absent from the calanoid copepod lineage. Based on the geographical location of the sampling site, the field-samples were initially presumed to consist of C. finmarchicus. However, the identification of C. glacialis in some samples underlines the need for performing molecular analyses to reliably identify Calanus species. Our findings contributes to a better understanding of molecular events occurring during diapause and diapause termination in calanoid copepods.