skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, July 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, July 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: The Simons Observatory: modeling optical systematics in the Large Aperture Telescope

We present geometrical and physical optics simulation results for the Simons Observatory Large Aperture Telescope. This work was developed as part of the general design process for the telescope, allowing us to evaluate the impact of various design choices on performance metrics and potential systematic effects. The primary goal of the simulations was to evaluate the final design of the reflectors and the cold optics that are now being built. We describe nonsequential ray tracing used to inform the design of the cold optics, including absorbers internal to each optics tube. We discuss ray tracing simulations of the telescope structure that allow us to determine geometries that minimize detector loading and mitigate spurious near-field effects that have not been resolved by the internal baffling. We also describe physical optics simulations, performed over a range of frequencies and field locations, that produce estimates of monochromatic far-field beam patterns, which in turn are used to gauge general optical performance. Finally, we describe simulations that shed light on beam sidelobes from panel gap diffraction.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10210665
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publisher / Repository:
Optical Society of America
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Optics
Volume:
60
Issue:
4
ISSN:
1559-128X; APOPAI
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 823
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We describe the optimum telescope focal ratio for a two-element, three-surface, telecentric image-transfer microlens-to-fiber coupled integral field unit within the constraints imposed by microoptics fabrication and optical aberrations. We create a generalized analytical description of the microoptics optical parameters from first principles. We find that the optical performance, including all aberrations, of a design constrained by an analytic model considering only spherical aberration and diffraction matches within ± 4 % of a design optimized by ray-tracing software such as Zemax. The analytical model does not require any compromise on the available clear aperture; about 90% mechanical aperture of hexagonal microlens is available for light collection. The optimum telescope f-ratio for a 200-μm core fiber-fed at f / 3.5 is between f / 7 and f / 12. We find the optimum telescope focal ratio changes as a function of fiber core diameter and fiber input beam speed. A telescope focal ratio of f / 8 would support the largest range of fiber diameters (100 to 500 μm) and fiber injection speeds (between f / 3 and f / 5). The optimization of the telescope and lenslet-coupled fibers is relevant for the design of high-efficiency dedicated survey telescopes, and for retrofitting existing facilities via introducing focal macro-optics to match the instrument input requirements. 
    more » « less
  2. Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was developed to explain the field dependency of aberration field centers in the image plane of nominally rotationally symmetric optical systems that have lost their symmetry through misalignments. A new insight into the theory led to calculating the sigma vectors, which locate the aberration field centers, using the angle between a real-ray trace of the optical axis ray (OAR) and the normal of the local surface where “local” refers to the object and image optical spaces of that surface. Here, we detail the sigma vector calculations for general optical systems and provide an experimental investigation of a misaligned system with a high-precision customized Cassegrain telescope. In the simulations, a Newtonian telescope, a Cassegrain telescope, and a three-mirror anastigmat telescope were misaligned intentionally in ray-tracing software. The sigma vectors were calculated analytically for the third-order aberrations of astigmatism and coma. Experimentally, the same perturbations were implemented for the Cassegrain telescope system, and the aberrations were quantified through interferometric measurements on a grid of field points in the image plane that verified the analytical derivation and simulations. 
    more » « less
  3. We present near-field radio holography measurements of the Simons Observatory Large Aperture Telescope Receiver optics. These measurements demonstrate that radio holography of complex millimeter-wave optical systems comprising cryogenic lenses, filters, and feed horns can provide detailed characterization of wave propagation before deployment. We used the measured amplitude and phase, at 4 K, of the receiver near-field beam pattern to predict two key performance parameters: 1) the amount of scattered light that will spill past the telescope to 300 K and 2) the beam pattern expected from the receiver when fielded on the telescope. These cryogenic measurements informed the removal of a filter, which led to improved optical efficiency and reduced sidelobes at the exit of the receiver. Holography measurements of this system suggest that the spilled power past the telescope mirrors will be less than 1%, and the main beam with its near sidelobes are consistent with the nominal telescope design. This is the first time such parameters have been confirmed in the lab prior to deployment of a new receiver. This approach is broadly applicable to millimeter and submillimeter instruments.

     
    more » « less
  4. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background rely on cryogenic instrumentation with cold detectors, readout, and optics providing the low noise performance and instrumental stability required to make more sensitive measurements. It is therefore critical to optimize all aspects of the cryogenic design to achieve the necessary performance, with low temperature components and acceptable system cooling requirements. In particular, we will focus on our use of thermal filters and cold optics, which reduce the thermal load passed along to the cryogenic stages. To test their performance, we have made a series of in situ measurements while integrating the third receiver for the BICEP Array telescope. In addition to characterizing the behavior of this receiver, these measurements continue to refine the models that are being used to inform design choices being made for future instruments. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) has released analyses of reconstructed images of horizon-scale millimeter emission near the supermassive black hole at the center of the M87 galaxy. Parts of the analyses made use of a large library of synthetic black hole images and spectra, which were produced using numerical general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics fluid simulations and polarized ray tracing. In this article, we describe thePATOKApipeline, which was used to generate the Illinois contribution to the EHT simulation library. We begin by describing the relevant accretion systems and radiative processes. We then describe the details of the three numerical codes we use,iharm,ipole, andigrmonty, paying particular attention to differences between the current generation of the codes and the originally published versions. Finally, we provide a brief overview of simulated data as produced byPATOKAand conclude with a discussion of limitations and future directions.

     
    more » « less