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Title: Deep Learning with Gaussian Differential Privacy
Deep learning models are often trained on datasets that contain sensitive information such as individuals' shopping transactions, personal contacts, and medical records. An increasingly important line of work therefore has sought to train neural networks subject to privacy constraints that are specified by differential privacy or its divergence-based relaxations. These privacy definitions, however, have weaknesses in handling certain important primitives (composition and subsampling), thereby giving loose or complicated privacy analyses of training neural networks. In this paper, we consider a recently proposed privacy definition termed \textit{f-differential privacy} [18] for a refined privacy analysis of training neural networks. Leveraging the appealing properties of f-differential privacy in handling composition and subsampling, this paper derives analytically tractable expressions for the privacy guarantees of both stochastic gradient descent and Adam used in training deep neural networks, without the need of developing sophisticated techniques as [3] did. Our results demonstrate that the f-differential privacy framework allows for a new privacy analysis that improves on the prior analysis~[3], which in turn suggests tuning certain parameters of neural networks for a better prediction accuracy without violating the privacy budget. These theoretically derived improvements are confirmed by our experiments in a range of tasks in image classification, text more » classification, and recommender systems. Python code to calculate the privacy cost for these experiments is publicly available in the \texttt{TensorFlow Privacy} library. « less
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Award ID(s):
1763314 1934876
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Harvard data science review
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Differential privacy has seen remarkable success as a rigorous and practical formalization of data privacy in the past decade. This privacy definition and its divergence based relaxations, however, have several acknowledged weaknesses, either in handling composition of private algorithms or in analyzing important primitives like privacy amplification by subsampling. Inspired by the hypothesis testing formulation of privacy, this paper proposes a new relaxation, which we term `f-differential privacy' (f-DP). This notion of privacy has a number of appealing properties and, in particular, avoids difficulties associated with divergence based relaxations. First, f-DP preserves the hypothesis testing interpretation. In addition, f-DP allows for lossless reasoning about composition in an algebraic fashion. Moreover, we provide a powerful technique to import existing results proven for original DP to f-DP and, as an application, obtain a simple subsampling theorem for f-DP. In addition to the above findings, we introduce a canonical single-parameter family of privacy notions within the f-DP class that is referred to as `Gaussian differential privacy' (GDP), defined based on testing two shifted Gaussians. GDP is focal among the f-DP class because of a central limit theorem we prove. More precisely, the privacy guarantees of \emph{any} hypothesis testing based definition of privacy (includingmore »original DP) converges to GDP in the limit under composition. The CLT also yields a computationally inexpensive tool for analyzing the exact composition of private algorithms. Taken together, this collection of attractive properties render f-DP a mathematically coherent, analytically tractable, and versatile framework for private data analysis. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the tools we develop by giving an improved privacy analysis of noisy stochastic gradient descent.« less
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  3. The central question studied in this paper is Rényi Differential Privacy (RDP) guarantees for general discrete local randomizers in the shuffle privacy model. In the shuffle model, each of the 𝑛 clients randomizes its response using a local differentially private (LDP) mechanism and the untrusted server only receives a random permutation (shuffle) of the client responses without association to each client. The principal result in this paper is the first direct RDP bounds for general discrete local randomization in the shuffle pri- vacy model, and we develop new analysis techniques for deriving our results which could be of independent interest. In applications, such an RDP guarantee is most useful when we use it for composing several private interactions. We numerically demonstrate that, for important regimes, with composition our bound yields an improve- ment in privacy guarantee by a factor of 8× over the state-of-the-art approximate Differential Privacy (DP) guarantee (with standard composition) for shuffle models. Moreover, combining with Pois- son subsampling, our result leads to at least 10× improvement over subsampled approximate DP with standard composition.
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