skip to main content

Title: Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Multidomain Protein A111/114R Has Three Glycosyltransferase Functions Involved in the Synthesis of Atypical N-Glycans
The structures of the four N-linked glycans from the prototype chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein do not resemble any other glycans in the three domains of life. All known chloroviruses and antigenic variants (or mutants) share a unique conserved central glycan core consisting of five sugars, except for antigenic mutant virus P1L6, which has four of the five sugars. A combination of genetic and structural analyses indicates that the protein coded by PBCV-1 gene a111/114r, conserved in all chloroviruses, is a glycosyltransferase with three putative domains of approximately 300 amino acids each. Here, in addition to in silico sequence analysis and protein modeling, we measured the hydrolytic activity of protein A111/114R. The results suggest that domain 1 is a galactosyltransferase, domain 2 is a xylosyltransferase and domain 3 is a fucosyltransferase. Thus, A111/114R is the protein likely responsible for the attachment of three of the five conserved residues of the core region of this complex glycan, and, if biochemically corroborated, it would be the second three-domain protein coded by PBCV-1 that is involved in glycan synthesis. Importantly, these findings provide additional support that the chloroviruses do not use the canonical host endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi glycosylation pathway to glycosylate their glycoproteins; instead, more » they perform glycosylation independent of cellular organelles using virus-encoded enzymes. « less
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus MA-1D is a chlorovirus that infects Chlorella variabilis strain NC64A, a symbiont of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria. MA-1D has a 339-kb genome encoding ca. 366 proteins and 11 tRNAs. Like other chloroviruses, its major capsid protein (MCP) is decorated with N-glycans, whose structures have been solved in this work by using nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry along with MS/MS experiments. This analysis identified three N-linked oligosaccharides that differ in the nonstoichiometric presence of three monosaccharides, with the largest oligosaccharide composed of eight residues organized in a highly branched fashion. The N-glycans described here share several features with those of the other chloroviruses except that they lack a distal xylose unit that was believed to be part of a conserved core region for all the chloroviruses. Examination of the MA-1D genome detected a gene with strong homology to the putative xylosyltransferase in the reference chlorovirus PBCV-1 and in virus NY-2A, albeit mutated with a premature stop codon. This discovery means that we need to reconsider the essential features of the common core glycan region in the chloroviruses.

  2. Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus-1 (PBCV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus that infects the unicellular green alga Chlorella variabilis NC64A. Unlike many other viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of the glycans attached to its major capsid protein. Importantly, these glycans differ from those reported from the three domains of life in terms of structure and asparagine location in the sequon of the protein. Previous data collected from 20 PBCV-1 spontaneous mutants (or antigenic variants) suggested that the a064r gene encodes a glycosyltransferase (GT) with three domains, each with a different function. Here, we demonstrate that: domain 1 is a β- l -rhamnosyltransferase; domain 2 is an α- l -rhamnosyltransferase resembling only bacterial proteins of unknown function, and domain 3 is a methyltransferase that methylates the C-2 hydroxyl group of the terminal α- l -rhamnose (Rha) unit. We also establish that methylation of the C-3 hydroxyl group of the terminal α- l -Rha is achieved by another virus-encoded protein A061L, which requires an O-2 methylated substrate. This study, thus, identifies two of the glycosyltransferase activities involved in the synthesis of the N -glycan of the viral major capsid protein in PBCV-1more »and establishes that a single protein A064R possesses the three activities needed to synthetize the 2-OMe-α- l -Rha-(1→2)-β- l -Rha fragment. Remarkably, this fragment can be attached to any xylose unit.« less
  3. Abstract Pregnancy-specific beta 1 glycoprotein (PSG1) is secreted from trophoblast cells of the human placenta in increasing concentrations as pregnancy progresses, becoming one of the most abundant proteins in maternal serum in the third trimester. PSG1 has seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites across its four domains. We carried out glycomic and glycoproteomic studies to characterize the glycan composition of PSG1 purified from serum of pregnant women and identified the presence of complex N-glycans containing poly LacNAc epitopes with α2,3 sialyation at four sites. Using different techniques, we explored whether PSG1 can bind to galectin-1 (Gal-1) as these two proteins were previously shown to participate in processes required for a successful pregnancy. We confirmed that PSG1 binds to Gal-1 in a carbohydrate-dependent manner with an affinity of the interaction of 0.13 μM. In addition, we determined that out of the three N-glycosylation-carrying domains, only the N and A2 domains of recombinant PSG1 interact with Gal-1. Lastly, we observed that the interaction between PSG1 and Gal-1 protects this lectin from oxidative inactivation and that PSG1 competes the ability of Gal-1 to bind to some but not all of its glycoprotein ligands.
  4. Membrane transporters of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family mediate various physiological processes by facilitating the translocation of amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other metabolites. In the body, the activity of these transporters is tightly controlled through various post-translational modifications with implications on protein expression, stability, membrane trafficking, and dynamics. While N-linked glycosylation is a universal regulatory mechanism among eukaryotes, a consistent mechanism of how glycosylation affects the SLC6 transporter family remains elusive. It is generally believed that glycans influence transporter stability and membrane trafficking; however, the role of glycosylation on transporter dynamics remains disputable, with differing conclusions among individual transporters across the SLC6 family. In this study, we collected over 1 ms of aggregated all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation data to systematically identify the impact of N-glycans on SLC6 transporter dynamics. We modeled four human SLC6 transporters, the serotonin, dopamine, glycine, and B0AT1 transporters, by first simulating all possible combinations of a glycan attached to each glycosylation site followed by investigating the effect of larger, oligo-N-linked glycans to each transporter. The simulations reveal that glycosylation does not significantly affect the transporter structure but alters the dynamics of the glycosylated extracellular loop and surrounding regions. The structural consequences of glycosylation onmore »the loop dynamics are further emphasized with larger glycan molecules attached. However, no apparent differences in ligand stability or movement of the gating helices were observed, and as such, the simulations suggest that glycosylation does not have a profound effect on conformational dynamics associated with substrate transport.« less
  5. Abstract

    Bacterial protein glycosylation is commonly mediated by oligosaccharyltransferases (OTases) that transfer oligosaccharides en bloc from preassembled lipid-linked precursors to acceptor proteins. Natively, O-linking OTases usually transfer a single repeat unit of the O-antigen or capsular polysaccharide to the side chains of serine or threonine on acceptor proteins. Three major families of bacterial O-linking OTases have been described: PglL, PglS, and TfpO. TfpO is limited to transferring short oligosaccharides both in its native context and when heterologously expressed in glycoengineered Escherichia coli. On the other hand, PglL and PglS can transfer long-chain polysaccharides when expressed in glycoengineered E. coli. Herein, we describe the discovery and functional characterization of a novel family of bacterial O-linking OTases termed TfpM from Moraxellaceae bacteria. TfpM proteins are similar in size and sequence to TfpO enzymes but can transfer long-chain polysaccharides to acceptor proteins. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that TfpM proteins cluster in distinct clades from known bacterial OTases. Using a representative TfpM enzyme from Moraxella osloensis, we determined that TfpM glycosylates a C-terminal threonine of its cognate pilin-like protein and identified the minimal sequon required for glycosylation. We further demonstrated that TfpM has broad substrate tolerance and can transfer diverse glycans including those with glucose,more »galactose, or 2-N-acetyl sugars at the reducing end. Last, we find that a TfpM-derived bioconjugate is immunogenic and elicits serotype-specific polysaccharide IgG responses in mice. The glycan substrate promiscuity of TfpM and identification of the minimal TfpM sequon renders this enzyme a valuable additional tool for expanding the glycoengineering toolbox.

    « less