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Title: Driven and Active Colloids at Fluid Interfaces
We derive expressions for the leading-order far-field flows generated by externally driven and active (swimming) colloids at planar fluid–fluid interfaces. We consider colloids adjacent to the interface or adhered to the interface with a pinned contact line. The Reynolds and capillary numbers are assumed much less than unity, in line with typical micron-scale colloids involving air– or alkane–aqueous interfaces. For driven colloids, the leading-order flow is given by the point-force (and/or torque) response of this system. For active colloids, the force-dipole (stresslet) response occurs at leading order. At clean (surfactant-free) interfaces, these hydrodynamic modes are essentially a restricted set of the usual Stokes multipoles in a bulk fluid. To leading order, driven colloids exert Stokeslets parallel to the interface, while active colloids drive differently oriented stresslets depending on the colloid's orientation. We then consider how these modes are altered by the presence of an incompressible interface, a typical circumstance for colloidal systems at small capillary numbers in the presence of surfactant. The leading-order modes for driven and active colloids are restructured dramatically. For driven colloids, interfacial incompressibility substantially weakens the far-field flow normal to the interface; the point-force response drives flow only parallel to the interface. However, Marangoni stresses induce more » a new dipolar mode, which lacks an analogue on a clean interface. Surface-viscous stresses, if present, potentially generate very long-ranged flow on the interface and the surrounding fluids. Our results have important implications for colloid assembly and advective mass transport enhancement near fluid boundaries. « less
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Journal of fluid mechanics
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National Science Foundation
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