skip to main content

Title: Synthesis, characterization, and electrocatalytic activity of bis(pyridylimino)isoindoline Cu( ii ) and Ni( ii ) complexes
Two NNN pincer complexes of Cu( ii ) and Ni( ii ) with BPI Me − [BPI Me − = 1,3-bis((6-methylpyridin-2-yl)imino)isoindolin-2-ide] have been prepared and characterized structurally, spectroscopically, and electrochemically. The single crystal structures of the two complexes confirmed their distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry attained by three equatorial N-atoms from the ligand and two axially positioned water molecules to give [Cu(BPI Me )(H 2 O) 2 ]ClO 4 and [Ni(BPI Me )(H 2 O) 2 ]ClO 4 . Electrochemical studies of Cu( ii ) and Ni( ii ) complexes have been performed in acetonitrile to identify metal-based and ligand-based redox activity. When subjected to a saturated CO 2 atmosphere, both complexes displayed catalytic activity for the reduction of CO 2 with the Cu( ii ) complex displaying higher activity than the Ni( ii ) analogue. However, both complexes were shown to decompose into catalytically active heterogeneous materials on the electrode surface over extended reductive electrolysis periods. Surface analysis of these materials using energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as their physical appearance suggests the reductive deposition of copper and nickel metal on the electrode surface. Electrocatalysis and decomposition are proposed to be triggered by ligand reduction, where complex stability is believed more » to be tied to fluxional ligand coordination in the reduced state. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1848478 1945160
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10219830
Journal Name:
Dalton Transactions
Volume:
50
Issue:
3
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
926 to 935
ISSN:
1477-9226
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Interest in O 2 -dependent aliphatic carbon–carbon (C–C) bond cleavage reactions of first row divalent metal diketonate complexes stems from the desire to further understand the reaction pathways of enzymes such as DKE1 and to extract information to develop applications in organic synthesis. A recent report of O 2 -dependent aliphatic C–C bond cleavage at ambient temperature in Ni( ii ) diketonate complexes supported by a tridentate nitrogen donor ligand [(MBBP)Ni(PhC(O)CHC(O)Ph)]Cl ( 7-Cl ; MBBP = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine) in the presence of NEt 3 spurred our interest in further examining the chemistry of such complexes. A series of new TERPY-ligated Ni( ii ) diketonate complexes of the general formula [(TERPY)Ni(R 2 -1,3-diketonate)]ClO 4 ( 1 : R = CH 3 ; 2 : R = C(CH 3 ) 3 ; 3 : R = Ph) was prepared under air and characterized using single crystal X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, ESI-MS, FTIR, and UV-vis. Analysis of the reaction mixtures in which these complexes were generated using 1 H NMR and ESI-MS revealed the presence of both the desired diketonate complex and the bis-TERPY derivative [(TERPY) 2 Ni](ClO 4 ) 2 ( 4 ). Through selective crystallization 1–3 were isolated inmore »analytically pure form. Analysis of reaction mixtures leading to the formation of the MBBP analogs [(MBBP)Ni(R 2 -1,3-diketonate)]X (X = ClO 4 : 5 : R = CH 3 ; 6 : R = C(CH 3 ) 3 ; 7-ClO4 : R = Ph; X = Cl: 7-Cl : R = Ph) using 1 H NMR and ESI-MS revealed the presence of [(MBBP) 2 Ni](ClO 4 ) 2 ( 8 ). Analysis of aerobic acetonitrile solutions of analytically pure 1–3 , 5 and 6 containing NEt 3 and in some cases H 2 O using 1 H NMR and UV-vis revealed evidence for the formation of additional bis-ligand complexes ( 4 and 8 ) but suggested no oxidative diketonate cleavage reactivity. Analysis of the organic products generated from 3 , 7-ClO4 and 7-Cl revealed unaltered dibenzoylmethane. Our results therefore indicate that N 3 -ligated Ni( ii ) complexes of unsubstituted diketonate ligands do not exhibit O 2 -dependent aliphatic C–C bond clevage at room temperature, including in the presence of NEt 3 and/or H 2 O.« less
  2. To ascertain the influence of binary ligand systems [1,1-dicyanoethylene-2,2-dithiolate (i-mnt −2 ) and polyamine {tetraen = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, tren = diethylene triamine and opda = o -phenylenediamine}] on the coordination modes of the Ni( ii ) metal center and resulting supramolecular architectures, a series of nickel( ii ) thiolate complexes [Ni(tetraen)(i-mnt)](DMSO) ( 1 ), [Ni 2 (tren) 2 (i-mnt) 2 ] ( 2 ), and [Ni 2 (i-mnt) 2 (opda) 2 ] n ( 3 ) have been synthesized in high yield in one step in water and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography and spectroscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction studies disclose the diverse i-mnt −2 coordination to the Ni +2 center in the presence of active polyamine ligands, forming a slightly distorted octahedral geometry (NiN 4 S 2 ) in 1 , square planar (NiS 4 ) and distorted octahedral geometries (NiN 6 ) in the bimetallic co-crystallized aggregate of cationic [Ni(tren) 2 ] +2 and anionic [Ni(i-mnt) 2 ] −2 in 2 , and a one dimensional (1D) polymeric chain along the [100] axis in 3 , having consecutive square planar (NiS 4 ) and octahedral (NiN 6 ) coordination kernels. The N–H⋯O, N–H⋯S, N–H⋯N, N–H⋯S, N–H⋯N, and N–H⋯Omore »type hydrogen bonds stabilize the supramolecular assemblies in 1 , 2 , and 3 respectively imparting interesting graph-set-motifs. The molecular Hirshfeld surface analyses (HS) and 2D fingerprint plots were utilized for decoding all types of non-covalent contacts in the crystal networks. Atomic HS analysis of the Ni +2 centers reveals significant Ni–N metal–ligand interactions compared to Ni–S interactions. We have also studied the unorthodox interactions observed in the solid state structures of 1–3 by QTAIM and NBO analyses. Moreover, all the complexes proved to be highly active water reduction co-catalysts (WRC) in a photo-catalytic hydrogen evolution process involving iridium photosensitizers, wherein 2 and 3 having a square planar arrangement around the nickel center(s) – were found to be the most active ones, achieving 1000 and 1119 turnover numbers (TON), respectively.« less
  3. Herein we report heteroleptic Co( ii ) diimine complexes [Co(H 2 bip) 2 Cl 2 ] ( 1 ), [Co(H 2 bip) 2 Br 2 ] ( 2 ), [Co(H 2 bip) 3 ]Br 2 ·1MeOH ( 3 ) and [Co(H 2 bip) 2 (Me 2 bpy)]Br 2 ·(MeCN) 0.5 ·(H 2 O) 0.25 ( 4 ) (H 2 bip = 2,2′-bi-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine, bpy = 2,2′-dipyridyl, Me 2 bpy = 4,4′-Me-2,2′-dipyridyl), purposefully prepared to enable a systematic study of magnetic property changes arising from the increase of overall ligand field from σ/π-donor chlorido ( 1 ) to π-acceptor 4,4′Me-2,2′bpy ( 4 ). The presence of axial and rhombic anisotropy ( D and E ) of these compounds is sufficient to allow 1–4 to show field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. Interestingly, we found as the effective ligand field is increased in the series, rhombicity ( E / D ) decreases, and the magnetic relaxation profile changes significantly, where relaxation of magnetization at a specific temperature becomes gradually faster. We performed mechanistic analyses of the temperature dependence of magnetic relaxation times considering Orbach relaxation processes, Raman-like relaxation and quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM). The effective energy barrier of the Orbach relaxation process (more »U eff ) is largest in compound 1 (19.2 cm −1 ) and gradually decreases in the order 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 giving a minimum value in compound 4 (8.3 cm −1 ), where the Raman-like mechanism showed the possibility of different types of phonon activity below and above ∼2.5 K. As a precursor of 1 , the tetrahedral complex [Co(H 2 bip)Cl 2 ] ( 1a ) was also synthesized and structurally and magnetically characterized: this compound exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization under an applied dc field (1800 Oe) with a record slow relaxation time of 3.39 s at 1.8 K.« less
  4. The use of radical bridging ligands to facilitate strong magnetic exchange between paramagnetic metal centers represents a key step toward the realization of single-molecule magnets with high operating temperatures. Moreover, bridging ligands that allow the incorporation of high-anisotropy metal ions are particularly advantageous. Toward these ends, we report the synthesis and detailed characterization of the dinuclear hydroquinone-bridged complexes [(Me 6 tren) 2 MII2(C 6 H 4 O 2 2− )] 2+ (Me 6 tren = tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine; M = Fe, Co, Ni) and their one-electron-oxidized, semiquinone-bridged analogues [(Me 6 tren) 2 MII2(C 6 H 4 O 2 − ˙)] 3+ . Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the Me 6 tren ligand restrains the metal centers in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry, and coordination of the bridging hydro- or semiquinone ligand results in a parallel alignment of the three-fold axes. We quantify the p -benzosemiquinone–transition metal magnetic exchange coupling for the first time and find that the nickel( ii ) complex exhibits a substantial J < −600 cm −1 , resulting in a well-isolated S = 3/2 ground state even as high as 300 K. The iron and cobalt complexes feature metal–semiquinone exchange constants of J = −144(1) and −252(2) cm −1 ,more »respectively, which are substantially larger in magnitude than those reported for related bis(bidentate) semiquinoid complexes. Finally, the semiquinone-bridged cobalt and nickel complexes exhibit field-induced slow magnetic relaxation, with relaxation barriers of U eff = 22 and 46 cm −1 , respectively. Remarkably, the Orbach relaxation observed for the Ni complex is in stark contrast to the fast processes that dominate relaxation in related mononuclear Ni II complexes, thus demonstrating that strong magnetic coupling can engender slow magnetic relaxation.« less
  5. Cyanide, as an ambidentate ligand, plays a pivotal role in providing a simple diatomic building-block motif for controlled metal aggregation (M–CN–M′). Specifically, the inherent hard–soft nature of the cyanide ligand, i.e. , hard-nitrogen and soft-carbon centers, is due to electronic handles for binding Lewis acids following the hard–soft acid–base principle. Studies by Holm and Karlin showed structural and electronic requirements for cyanide-bridged (por)Fe III –CN–Cu II/I (por = porphyrin) molecular assemblies as biomimetics for cyanide-inhibited terminal quinol oxidases and cytochrome-C oxidase. The dinitrosyliron unit (DNIU) that exists in two redox states, {Fe(NO) 2 } 9 and {Fe(NO) 2 } 10 , draws attention as an electronic analogy of Cu II and Cu I , d 9 and d 10 , respectively. In similar controlled aggregations, L-type [(η 5 -C 5 R 5 )Fe(dppe)(CN)] (dppe = diphenyl phosphinoethane; R = H and Me) have been used as N-donor, μ-cyanoiron metalloligands to stabilize the DNIU in two redox states. Two bimetallic [(η 5 -C 5 R 5 )(dppe)Fe II –CN–{Fe(NO) 2 } 9 (sIMes)][BF 4 ] complexes, Fe-1 (R = H) and Fe*-1 (R = CH 3 ), showed dissimilar Fe II CN–{Fe(NO) 2 } 9 angular bends due to the electronicmore »donor properties of the [(η 5 -C 5 R 5 )Fe(dppe)(CN)] μ-cyanoiron metalloligand. A trimetallic [(η 5 -C 5 Me 5 )(dppe)Fe II –CN] 2 –{Fe(NO) 2 } 10 complex, Fe*-2 , engaged two bridging μ-cyanoiron metalloligands to stabilize the {Fe(NO) 2 } 10 unit. The lability of the Fe II –CN–{Fe(NO) 2 } 9/10 bond was probed by suitable X-type (Na + SPh − ) and L-type (PMe 3 ) ligands. Treatment of Fe-1 and Fe*-1 with PMe 3 accounted for a reduction-induced substitution at the DNIU, releasing [(η 5 -C 5 R 5 )Fe(dppe)(CN)] and N-heterocyclic carbene, and generating (PMe 3 ) 2 Fe(NO) 2 as the reduced {Fe(NO) 2 } 10 product.« less