skip to main content

Title: The More The Merrier: Reducing the Cost of Large Scale MPC
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows multiple par-ties to perform secure joint computations on their private inputs. To-day, applications for MPC are growing with thousands of parties wish-ing to build federated machine learning models or trusted setups for blockchains. To address such scenarios we propose a suite of novel MPC protocols that maximize throughput when run with large numbers of parties. In particular, our protocols have both communication and computation complexity that decrease with the number of parties. Our protocols build on prior protocols based on packed secret-sharing, introducing new techniques to build more efficient computation for general circuits. Specifically, we introduce a new approach for handling linear attacks that arise in protocols using packed secret-sharing and we propose a method for unpacking shared multiplication triples without increasingthe asymptotic costs. Compared with prior work, we avoid the log|C|overhead required when generically compiling circuits of size |C| for use in a SIMD computation, and we improve over folklore “committee-based” solutions by a factor of O(s), the statistical security parameter. In practice, our protocol is up to 10X faster than any known construction, under a reasonable set of parameters.
Authors:
; ;
Editors:
Canteaut, Anne; Standaert, Francois-Xavier
Award ID(s):
1955620
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10222951
Journal Name:
Eurocrypt
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Canteaut, Anne ; Standaert, Francois-Xavier (Ed.)
    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows multiple par-ties to perform secure joint computations on their private inputs. To-day, applications for MPC are growing with thousands of parties wish-ing to build federated machine learning models or trusted setups for blockchains. To address such scenarios we propose a suite of novel MPC protocols that maximize throughput when run with large numbers of parties. In particular, our protocols have both communication and computation complexity that decrease with the number of parties. Our protocols build on prior protocols based on packed secret-sharing, introducing new techniques to build more efficient computation for general circuits. Specifically, we introduce a new approach for handling linear attacks that arise in protocols using packed secret-sharing and we propose a method for unpacking shared multiplication triples without increasingthe asymptotic costs. Compared with prior work, we avoid the log|C|overhead required when generically compiling circuits of size |C| for use in a SIMD computation, and we improve over folklore “committee-based” solutions by a factor of O(s), the statistical security parameter. In practice, our protocol is up to 10X faster than any known construction, under a reasonable set of parameters.
  2. Multi-Party Computation (MPC) is a technique enabling data from several sources to be used in a secure computation revealing only the result while protecting the original data, facilitating shared utilization of data sets gathered by different entities. The presence of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware in datacenters can provide accelerated computing as well as low latency, high bandwidth communication that bolsters the performance of MPC and lowers the barrier to using MPC for many applications. In this work, we propose a Secret Sharing FPGA design based on the protocol described by Araki et al. We compare our hardware design to the original authors' software implementations of Secret Sharing and to work accelerating MPC protocols based on Garbled Circuits with FPGAs. Our conclusion is that Secret Sharing in the datacenter is competitive and when implemented on FPGA hardware was able to use at least 10x fewer computer resources than the original work using CPUs.
  3. Software applications that employ secure multi-party computation (MPC) can empower individuals and organizations to benefit from privacy-preserving data analyses when data sharing is encumbered by confidentiality concerns, legal constraints, or corporate policies. MPC is already being incorporated into software solutions in some domains; however, individual use cases do not fully convey the variety, extent, and complexity of the opportunities of MPC. This position paper articulates a role-based perspective that can provide some insight into how future research directions, infrastructure development and evaluation approaches, and deployment practices for MPC may evolve. Drawing on our own lessons from existing real-world deployments and the fundamental characteristics of MPC that make it a compelling technology, we propose a role-based conceptual framework for describing MPC deployment scenarios. Our framework acknowledges and leverages a novel assortment of roles that emerge from the fundamental ways in which MPC protocols support federation of functionalities and responsibilities. Defining these roles using the new opportunities for federation that MPC enables in turn can help identify and organize the capabilities, concerns, incentives, and trade-offs that affect the entities (software engineers, government regulators, corporate executives, end-users, and others) that participate in an MPC deployment scenario. This framework can not only guide themore »development of an ecosystem of modular and composable MPC tools, but can make explicit some of the opportunities that researchers and software engineers (and any organizations they form) have to differentiate and specialize the artifacts and services they choose to design, develop, and deploy. We demonstrate how this framework can be used to describe existing MPC deployment scenarios, how new opportunities in a scenario can be observed by disentangling roles inhabited by the involved parties, and how this can motivate the development of MPC libraries and software tools that specialize not by application domain but by role.« less
  4. Secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) allows mutually distrusting parties to run joint computations without revealing private data. Current MPC algorithms scale poorly with data size, which makes MPC on "big data" prohibitively slow and inhibits its practical use. Many relational analytics queries can maintain MPC's end-to-end security guarantee without using cryptographic MPC techniques for all operations. Conclave is a query compiler that accelerates such queries by transforming them into a combination of data-parallel, local cleartext processing and small MPC steps. When parties trust others with specific subsets of the data, Conclave applies new hybrid MPC-cleartext protocols to run additional steps outside of MPC and improve scalability further. Our Conclave prototype generates code for cleartext processing in Python and Spark, and for secure MPC using the Sharemind and Obliv-C frameworks. Conclave scales to data sets between three and six orders of magnitude larger than state-of-the-art MPC frameworks support on their own. Thanks to its hybrid protocols, Conclave also substantially outperforms SMCQL, the most similar existing system.
  5. We introduce CryptGPU, a system for privacy-preserving machine learning that implements all operations on the GPU (graphics processing unit). Just as GPUs played a pivotal role in the success of modern deep learning, they are also essential for realizing scalable privacy-preserving deep learning. In this work, we start by introducing a new interface to losslessly embed cryptographic operations over secret-shared values (in a discrete domain) into floating-point operations that can be processed by highly-optimized CUDA kernels for linear algebra. We then identify a sequence of “GPU-friendly” cryptographic protocols to enable privacy-preserving evaluation of both linear and non-linear operations on the GPU. Our microbenchmarks indicate that our private GPU-based convolution protocol is over 150x faster than the analogous CPU-based protocol; for non-linear operations like the ReLU activation function, our GPU-based protocol is around 10x faster than its CPU analog. With CryptGPU, we support private inference and private training on convolutional neural networks with over 60 million parameters as well as handle large datasets like ImageNet. Compared to the previous state-of-the-art, when considering large models and datasets, our protocols achieve a 2x to 8x improvement in private inference and a 6x to 36x improvement for private training. Our work not only showcasesmore »the viability of performing secure multiparty computation (MPC) entirely on the GPU to enable fast privacy-preserving machine learning, but also highlights the importance of designing new MPC primitives that can take full advantage of the GPU's computing capabilities.« less