skip to main content

Title: Symmetric and Asymmetric Push-Pull Conjugates: Significance of Pull Group Strength on Charge Transfer and Separation
The effect of acceptor strength on excited state charge‐transfer (CT) and charge separation (CS) in central phenothiazine (PTZ) derived symmetric 1 (PTZ-(TCBD-TPA)2) and asymmetric, 2 (PTZ-(TCBD/DCNQ-TPA)2) push-pull conjugates, in which triphenylamine (TPA) act as end capping and 1,1,4,4–tetracyanobuta–1,3–diene (TCBD) and cyclohexa–2,5–diene–1,4–ylidene–expanded TCBD (DCNQ) act as electron acceptor units is reported. Due to strong push-pull effects, intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) was observed in the ground state extending the absorption into the near-IR region. Electrochemical, spectroelectrochemical and computational studies coupled with energy level calculations predicted both 1 and 2 to be efficient candidates for ultrafast charge transfer. Subsequent femtosecond transient absorption studies along with global target analysis, performed in both polar and nonpolar solvents, confirmed such processes in which the CS was efficient in asymmetric 2 having both TCBD and DCNQ acceptors in polar benzonitrile while in toluene, only charge transfer was witnessed. This work highlights significance of number and strength of electron acceptor entities and the role of solvent polarity in multi-modular push-push systems to achieve ultrafast CS.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of physical chemistry
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Novel push-pull systems comprised of triphenylamine-tetracyanobutadiene, a high-energy CT species is linked to a near-IR sensitizer, azaBODIPY, for promoting excited state CS. These new systems revealed panchromatic absorption due to combined effect of intramolecular CT, and near-IR absorbing azaBODIPY. Using electrochemical and computational studies, energy levels were established to visualize excited state events. Fs-TA studies were performed to monitor excited state CT events. From target analysis, the effect of solvent polarity, number of linked CT entities, and excitation wavelength dependence in governing the lifetime of CS states was established. Electron exchange between two TPA-TCBD entities in 3 seem to prolong lifetime of the CS state. Importantly, we have been successful in demonstrating efficient CS upon both high-energy CT and low-energy near-IR excitations, signifying importance of these push-pull systems for optoelectronic applications operating in the wide optical window.
  2. A new type of push-pull charge transfer complex, viz., a spiro-locked N-heterocycle-fused zinc porphyrin, ZnP-SQ, is shown to undergo excited state charge separation, which is enhanced by axial F- binding to the Zn center. In this push-pull design, the spiro-quinone group acts as a ‘lock’ promoting charge transfer interactions by constraining mutual coplanarity of the meso-phenol-substituted electron-rich Zn(II) porphyrin and an electron deficient N-heterocycle, as revealed by electrochemical and computational studies. Spectroelectrochemical studies have been used to identify the spectra of charge separated states, and charge separation upon photoexcitation of ZnP has been unequivocally established by using transient absorption spectroscopic techniques covering wide spatial and temperol regions. Further, global target analysis of the transient data using GloTarAn software is used to obtain the lifetimes of different photochemical events and reveal that fluoride anion complexation stabilizes the charge separated state to an appreciable extent.
  3. The significance of multiple number of donor-acceptor entities on a central electron donor in a star-shaped molecular system in improving light energy harvesting ability is reported. For this, donor-acceptor-donor type conjugates comprised up to three entities ferrocenyl (Fc)-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) onto a central triphenylamine (TPA), (4-6) by the Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross–coupling reactions have been newly synthesized and characterized. Donor-acceptor conjugates possessing diketopyrrolopyrrole (1 to 3 entities) onto the central triphenylamine, (1-3) served as reference dyads while monomeric DPP and Fc-DPP served as control compounds. Both DPP and Fc-DPP carrying conjugates exhibited red-shifted absorption compared to their respective control compounds revealing existence of ground state interactions. Furthermore, DPP fluorescence in 4-6 was found to be quantitatively quenched while for 1-3, this property varied between 73-65% suggesting occurrence moderate amounts of excited state events. The electrochemical investigations exhibited an additional low potential oxidation in the case of Fc-DPP-TPA based derivatives (4-6) owing to the presence of ferrocene unit(s). This was in addition to DPP and TPA redox peaks. Using spectral, electrochemical and computational studies, Gibbs free-energy calculations were performed to visualize excited state charge separation (GCS) in these donor-acceptor conjugates as a function of different number of Fc-DPP entities. Formation of Fc+-DPP•--TPA chargemore »separated states (CSS) in the case of 4-6 was evident. Using spectroelectrochemical studies, spectrum of CSS was deduced. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption spectral studies were performed to gather information on excited state charge separation. Increasing the number of Fc-DPP entities in 4-6 improved charge separation rates. Surprisingly, lifetime of the charge separated state, Fc+-DPP•--TPA was found to persist longer with an increase in the number of Fc-DPP entities in 4-6 as compared to Fc-DPP-control and simple DPP derived donor-acceptor conjugates in literature. This unprecedented result has been attributed to subtle changes in GCS and GCR and the associated electron coupling between different entities.« less
  4. Absorption of electronic acceptors in the accessible channels of an assembled triphenylamine (TPA) bis -urea macrocycle 1 enabled the study of electron transfer from the walls of the TPA framework to the encapsulated guests. The TPA host is isoskeletal in all host–guest structures analyzed with guests 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone and I 2 loading in single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. Analysis of the crystal structures highlights how the spatial proximity and orientation of the TPA host and the entrapped guests influence their resulting photophysical properties and allow direct comparison of the different donor–acceptor complexes. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows that upon complex formation 1·2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone exhibits a charge transfer (CT) transition. Whereas, the 1·2,1,3-benzothiadiazole complex undergoes a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) upon irradiation with 365 nm LEDs. The CT absorptions were also identified with the aid of time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. Cyclic voltammetry experiments show that 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole undergoes reversible reduction within the host–guest complex. Moreover, the optical band gaps of the host 1·2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone (1.66 eV), and host 1·2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (2.15 eV) complexes are significantly smaller as compared to the free host 1 material (3.19 eV). Overall, understanding this supramolecular electron transfer strategy should pave the way towards designing lower band gap inclusion complexes.
  5. While the development of chiral molecules displaying circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) has received considerable attention, the corresponding CPL intensity, g lum, hardly exceeds 10 −2 at the molecular level owing to the difficulty in optimizing the key parameters governing such a luminescence process. To address this challenge, we report here the synthesis and chiroptical properties of a new family of π-helical push–pull systems based on carbo[6]helicene, where the latter acts as either a chiral electron acceptor or a donor unit. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical investigation shows that the magnitude and relative orientation of the electric ( μe ) and magnetic (μ m ) dipole transition moments can be tuned efficiently with regard to the molecular chiroptical properties, which results in high g lum values, i.e. up to 3–4 × 10 −2 . Our investigations revealed that the optimized mutual orientation of the electric and magnetic dipoles in the excited state is a crucial parameter to achieve intense helicene-mediated exciton coupling, which is a major contributor to the obtained strong CPL. Finally, top-emission CP-OLEDs were fabricated through vapor deposition, which afforded a promising g El of around 8 × 10 −3 . These results bring about further molecular design guidelinesmore »to reach high CPL intensity and offer new insights into the development of innovative CP-OLED architectures.« less