Improved performance of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) plays a critical role in the future of next- generation battery applications. Nickel-rich layered oxides such as LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2(NMC 811), are popular cathodes due to their high energy densities. However, they suffer from high surface reactivity, which results in the formation of Li2CO3passive layer. Herein, we show the role of nanosecond pulsed laser annealing (PLA) in improving the current capacity and cycling stability of LIBs by reducing the carbonate layer, in addition to forming a protective LiF layer and manipulating the NMC 811 microstructures. We use high-power nanosecond laser pulses in a controlled way to create nanostructured surface topography which has a positive impact on the capacity retention and current capacity by providing an increased active surface area, which influences the diffusion kinetics of lithium-ions in the electrode materials during the battery cycling process. Advanced characterizations show that the PLA treatment results in the thinning of the passive Li2CO3layer, which is formed on as-received NMC811 samples, along with the decomposition of excess polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. The high-power laser interacts with the decomposed binder and surface Li+to form LiF phase, which acts as a protective layer to prevent surface reactive sites from initiating parasitic reactions.more »
We introduce an intermediate-temperature (350 °C) dry molten sodium hydroxide-mediated binder-free electrodeposition process to grow the previously electrochemically inaccessible air- and moisture-sensitive layered sodium transition metal oxides, NaxMO2(M = Co, Mn, Ni, Fe), in both thin and thick film form, compounds which are conventionally synthesized in powder form by solid-state reactions at temperatures ≥700 °C. As a key motivation for this work, several of these oxides are of interest as cathode materials for emerging sodium-ion–based electrochemical energy storage systems. Despite the low synthesis temperature and short reaction times, our electrodeposited oxides retain the key structural and electrochemical performance observed in high-temperature bulk synthesized materials. We demonstrate that tens of micrometers thick >75% dense NaxCoO2and NaxMnO2can be deposited in under 1 h. When used as cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, these materials exhibit near theoretical gravimetric capacities, chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ions (∼10−12cm2⋅s−1), and high reversible areal capacities in the range ∼0.25 to 0.76 mA⋅h⋅cm−2, values significantly higher than those reported for binder-free sodium cathodes deposited by other techniques. The method described here resolves longstanding intrinsic challenges associated with traditional aqueous solution-based electrodeposition of ceramic oxides and opens a general solution chemistry approach for electrochemical processing of hitherto unexplored air- and moisture-sensitive more »
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- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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- Article No. e2025044118
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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