RING finger and WD repeat domain-containing protein 3 (RFWD3) is an E3 ligase known to facilitate homologous recombination by removing replication protein A (RPA) and RAD51 from DNA damage sites. Further, RPA-mediated recruitment of RFWD3 to stalled replication forks is essential for interstrand cross-link repair. Here, we report that in unperturbed human cells, RFWD3 localizes at replication forks and associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) via its PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) motif. PCNA association is critical for the stability of RFWD3 and for DNA replication. Cells lacking RFWD3 show slower fork progression, a prolonged S phase, and an increase in the loading of several replication-fork components on the chromatin. These findings all point to increased frequency of stalled forks in the absence of RFWD3. The S-phase defect is rescued by WT RFWD3, but not by the PIP mutant, suggesting that the interaction of RFWD3 with PCNA is critical for DNA replication. Finally, we observe reduced ubiquitination of RPA in cells lacking RFWD3. We conclude that the stabilization of RFWD3 by PCNA at the replication fork enables the polyubiquitination of RPA and its subsequent degradation for proper DNA replication.
Inhibition of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase impairs DNA damage tolerance and repair in glioma cells
Abstract Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is a determinant of malignancy in gliomas through kynurenine (KYN) signaling. We report that inhibition of TDO activity attenuated recovery from replication stress and increased the genotoxic effects of bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU). Activation of the Chk1 arm of the replication stress response (RSR) was reduced when TDO activity was blocked prior to BCNU treatment, whereas phosphorylation of serine 33 (pS33) on replication protein A (RPA) was enhanced—indicative of increased fork collapse. Analysis of quantitative proteomic results revealed that TDO inhibition reduced nuclear 53BP1 and sirtuin levels. We confirmed that cells lacking TDO activity exhibited elevated gamma-H2AX signal and defective recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin following BCNU treatment, which corresponded with delayed repair of DNA breaks. Addition of exogenous KYN increased the rate of break repair. TDO inhibition diminished SIRT7 deacetylase recruitment to chromatin, which increased histone H3K18 acetylation—a key mark involved in preventing 53BP1 recruitment to sites of DNA damage. TDO inhibition also sensitized cells to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage, but this effect did not involve altered 53BP1 recruitment. These experiments support a model where TDO-mediated KYN signaling helps fuel a robust response to replication stress and DNA damage.
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- NAR Cancer
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- National Science Foundation
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PCNA-mediated stabilization of E3 ligase RFWD3 at the replication fork is essential for DNA replication
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