skip to main content

Title: An annotated draft genome for the Andean bear, Tremarctos ornatus
Abstract The Andean bear is the only extant member of the Tremarctine subfamily and the only extant ursid species to inhabit South America. Here, we present an annotated de novo assembly of a nuclear genome from a captive-born female Andean bear, Mischief, generated using a combination of short and long DNA and RNA reads. Our final assembly has a length of 2.23 Gb, and a scaffold N50 of 21.12 Mb, contig N50 of 23.5 kb, and BUSCO score of 88%. The Andean bear genome will be a useful resource for exploring the complex phylogenetic history of extinct and extant bear species and for future population genetics studies of Andean bears.
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Heredity
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is the second largest and most widespread extant terrestrial carnivore on Earth and has recently emerged as a medical model for human metabolic diseases. Here, we report a fully phased chromosome-level assembly of a male North American brown bear built by combining Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) HiFi data and publicly available Hi-C data. The final genome size is 2.47 Gigabases (Gb) with a scaffold and contig N50 length of 70.08 and 43.94 Megabases (Mb), respectively. Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Ortholog (BUSCO) analysis revealed that 94.5% of single copy orthologs from Mammalia were present in the genome (the highest of any ursid genome to date). Repetitive elements accounted for 44.48% of the genome and a total of 20,480 protein coding genes were identified. Based on whole genome alignment to the polar bear, the brown bear is highly syntenic with the polar bear, and our phylogenetic analysis of 7,246 single-copy orthologs supports the currently proposed species tree for Ursidae. This highly contiguous genome assembly will support future research on both the evolutionary history of the bear family and the physiological mechanisms behind hibernation, the latter of which has broad medical implications.

  2. Abstract The diatom, Cyclotella cryptica, is a well-established model species for physiological studies and biotechnology applications of diatoms. To further facilitate its use as a model diatom, we report an improved reference genome assembly and annotation for C. cryptica strain CCMP332. We used a combination of long- and short-read sequencing to assemble a high-quality and contaminant-free genome. The genome is 171 Mb in size and consists of 662 scaffolds with a scaffold N50 of 494 kb. This represents a 176-fold decrease in scaffold number and 41-fold increase in scaffold N50 compared to the previous assembly. The genome contains 21,250 predicted genes, 75% of which were assigned putative functions. Repetitive DNA comprises 59% of the genome, and an improved classification of repetitive elements indicated that a historically steady accumulation of transposable elements has contributed to the relatively large size of the C. cryptica genome. The high-quality C. cryptica genome will serve as a valuable reference for ecological, genetic, and biotechnology studies of diatoms.
  3. Abstract Background

    The blue catfish is of great value in aquaculture and recreational fisheries. The F1 hybrids of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) × male blue catfish (Ictalurusfurcatus) have been the primary driver of US catfish production in recent years because of superior growth, survival, and carcass yield. The channel–blue hybrid also provides an excellent model to investigate molecular mechanisms of environment-dependent heterosis. However, transcriptome and methylome studies suffered from low alignment rates to the channel catfish genome due to divergence, and the genome resources for blue catfish are not publicly available.


    The blue catfish genome assembly is 841.86 Mbp in length with excellent continuity (8.6 Mbp contig N50, 28.2 Mbp scaffold N50) and completeness (98.6% Eukaryota and 97.0% Actinopterygii BUSCO). A total of 30,971 protein-coding genes were predicted, of which 21,781 were supported by RNA sequencing evidence. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that it diverged from channel catfish approximately 9 million years ago with 15.7 million fixed nucleotide differences. The within-species single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density is 0.32% between the most aquaculturally important blue catfish strains (D&B and Rio Grande). Gene family analysis discovered significant expansion of immune-related families in the blue catfish lineage, which may contribute to disease resistance in blue catfish.

    more »Conclusions

    We reported the first high-quality, chromosome-level assembly of the blue catfish genome, which provides the necessary genomic tool kit for transcriptome and methylome analysis, SNP discovery and marker-assisted selection, gene editing and genome engineering, and reproductive enhancement of the blue catfish and hybrid catfish.

    « less
  4. Abstract Background

    The increasing number of chromosome-level genome assemblies has advanced our knowledge and understanding of macroevolutionary processes. Here, we introduce the genome of the desert horned lizard, Phrynosoma platyrhinos, an iguanid lizard occupying extreme desert conditions of the American southwest. We conduct analysis of the chromosomal structure and composition of this species and compare these features across genomes of 12 other reptiles (5 species of lizards, 3 snakes, 3 turtles, and 1 bird).


    The desert horned lizard genome was sequenced using Illumina paired-end reads and assembled and scaffolded using Dovetail Genomics Hi-C and Chicago long-range contact data. The resulting genome assembly has a total length of 1,901.85 Mb, scaffold N50 length of 273.213 Mb, and includes 5,294 scaffolds. The chromosome-level assembly is composed of 6 macrochromosomes and 11 microchromosomes. A total of 20,764 genes were annotated in the assembly. GC content and gene density are higher for microchromosomes than macrochromosomes, while repeat element distributions show the opposite trend. Pathway analyses provide preliminary evidence that microchromosome and macrochromosome gene content are functionally distinct. Synteny analysis indicates that large microchromosome blocks are conserved among closely related species, whereas macrochromosomes show evidence of frequent fusion and fission events among reptiles, even between closelymore »related species.


    Our results demonstrate dynamic karyotypic evolution across Reptilia, with frequent inferred splits, fusions, and rearrangements that have resulted in shuffling of chromosomal blocks between macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. Our analyses also provide new evidence for distinct gene content and chromosomal structure between microchromosomes and macrochromosomes within reptiles.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    The plant genus Bidens (Asteraceae or Compositae; Coreopsidae) is a species-rich and circumglobally distributed taxon. The 19 hexaploid species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands are considered an iconic example of adaptive radiation, of which many are imperiled and of high conservation concern. Until now, no genomic resources were available for this genus, which may serve as a model system for understanding the evolutionary genomics of explosive plant diversification. Here, we present a high-quality reference genome for the Hawaiʻi Island endemic species B. hawaiensis A. Gray reconstructed from long-read, high-fidelity sequences generated on a Pacific Biosciences Sequel II System. The haplotype-aware, draft genome assembly consisted of ~6.67 Giga bases (Gb), close to the holoploid genome size estimate of 7.56 Gb (±0.44 SD) determined by flow cytometry. After removal of alternate haplotigs and contaminant filtering, the consensus haploid reference genome was comprised of 15 904 contigs containing ~3.48 Gb, with a contig N50 value of 422 594. The high interspersed repeat content of the genome, approximately 74%, along with hexaploid status, contributed to assembly fragmentation. Both the haplotype-aware and consensus haploid assemblies recovered >96% of Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs. Yet, the removal of alternate haplotigs did not substantially reduce the proportion of duplicatedmore »benchmarking genes (~79% vs. ~68%). This reference genome will support future work on the speciation process during adaptive radiation, including resolving evolutionary relationships, determining the genomic basis of trait evolution, and supporting ongoing conservation efforts.

    « less