skip to main content


Title: Homochiral [2.2]Paracyclophane Self‐Assembly Promoted by Transannular Hydrogen Bonding
Abstract

[2.2]paracyclophane (pCp), unlike many π‐building blocks, has been virtually unexplored in supramolecular constructs. Reported here is the synthesis and characterization of the first pCp derivatives capable of programmed self‐assembly into extended cofacial π‐stacks in solution and the solid state. The design employs transannular (intramolecular) hydrogen bonds (H‐bonds), hitherto unstudied in pCps, between pseudo‐ortho‐positioned amides of a pCp‐4,7,12,15‐tetracarboxamide (pCpTA) to preorganize the molecules for intermolecular H‐bonding with π‐stacked neighbors. X‐ray crystallography confirms the formation of homochiral, one‐dimensional pCpTA stacks helically laced with two H‐bond strands. The chiral sense is dictated by the planar chirality (RporSp) of the pCpTA monomers. A combination of NMR, IR, and UV/Vis studies confirms the formation of the first supramolecular pCp polymers in solution.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10236706
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Angewandte Chemie
Volume:
128
Issue:
36
ISSN:
0044-8249
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 10884-10889
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    2,6‐Bis(pyrrol‐2‐yl)pyridines are important building blocks for supramolecular assemblies and photoluminescent main group and transition metal compounds. Sterically encumbered 2,6‐bis(5‐(2,4,6‐trimethylphenyl)‐3‐phenyl‐1H‐pyrrol‐2‐yl)pyridine, H2MesPDPPh, can adopt monomeric and dimeric structures in the solid state and in solution, controlled by competing inter‐ and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Deprotonation in the presence of lithium cations provides Li2MesPDPPh, which can be isolated in monomeric and dimeric forms depending on solvent polarity. Protonation of H2MesPDPPhdisrupts intramolecular hydrogen bonding and provides the monomeric pyridinium salt [H3MesPDPPh]Cl. Independent of solvent polarity, all three derivatives exhibit intense fluorescence in solution. The absorption and emission spectra are highly sensitive to the level of protonation, which can be rationalized by the effects of (de)protonation on the HOMO and LUMO of the tricyclic π‐system.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Vanadium multiredox‐based NASICON‐NazV2−yMy(PO4)3(3 ≤z ≤ 4; M = Al3+, Cr3+, and Mn2+) cathodes are particularly attractive for Na‐ion battery applications due to their high Na insertion voltage (>3.5 V vs Na+/Na0), reversible storage capacity (≈150 mA h g−1), and rate performance. However, their practical application is hindered by rapid capacity fade due to bulk structural rearrangements at high potentials involving complex redox and local structural changes. To decouple these factors, a series of Mg2+‐substituted Na3+yV2−yMgy(PO4)3(0 ≤y ≤ 1) cathodes is studied for which the only redox‐active species is vanadium. While X‐ray diffraction (XRD) confirms the formation of solid solutions between they = 0 and 1 end members, X‐ray absorption spectroscopy and solid‐state nuclear magnetic resonance reveal a complex evolution of the local structure upon progressive Mg2+substitution for V3+. Concurrently, the intercalation voltage rises from 3.35 to 3.45 V, due to increasingly more ionic VO bonds, and the sodium (de)intercalation mechanism transitions from a two‐phase fory ≤ 0.5 to a solid solution process fory ≥ 0.5, as confirmed by in operando XRD, while Na‐ion diffusion kinetics follow a nonlinear trend across the compositional series.

     
    more » « less
  3. The treatment of 5-{[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethynyl}pyrimidine with a threefold excess of 1,2,3,5-tetrafluoro-4,6-diiodobenzene in dichloromethane solution led to the formation of the unexpected 1:2 title co-crystal, C 14 H 13 N 3 ·2CF 4 I 2 . In the extended structure, two unique C—I...N halogen bonds from one of the 1,2,3,5-tetrafluoro-4,6-diiodobenzene molecules to the pyrimidine N atoms of the 5-{[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethynyl}pyrimidine molecule generate [110] chains and layers of these chains are π-stacked along the a- axis direction. The second 1,2,3,5-tetrafluoro-4,6-diiodobenzene molecule resides in channels formed parallel to the a -axis direction between stacks of 5-{[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]ethynyl}pyrimidine molecules and interacts with them via C—I...π(alkyne) contacts. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Reported here is the synthesis and self‐assembly characterization of [n.n]paracyclophanes ([n.n]pCps,n=2, 3) equipped with anilide hydrogen bonding units. These molecules differ from previous self‐assembling [n.n]paracyclophanes ([n.n]pCps) in the connectivity of their amide hydrogen bonding units (C‐centered/carboxamide vs.N‐centered/anilide). This subtle change results in a ≈30‐fold increase in the elongation constant for the[2.2]pCp‐4,7,12,15‐tetraanilide ([2.2]pCpNTA) compared to previously reported[2.2]pCp‐4,7,12,15‐tetracarboxamide ([2.2]pCpTA), and a ≈300‐fold increase in the elongation constant for the[3.3]pCp‐5,8,14,17‐tetraanilide ([3.3]pCpNTA) compared to previously reported[3.3]pCp‐5,8,14,17‐tetracarboxamide ([3.3]pCpTA). The[n.n]pCpNTAmonomers also represent the reversal of a previously reported trend in solution‐phase assembly strength when comparing[2.2]pCpTAand[3.3]pCpTAmonomers. The origins of the assembly differences are geometric changes in the association between[n.n]pCpNTAmonomers—revealed by computations and X‐ray crystallography—resulting in a more favorable slipped stacking of the intermolecular π‐surfaces ([n.n]pCpNTAvs.[n.n]pCpTA), and a more complementary H‐bonding geometry ([3.3]pCpNTAvs.[2.2]pCpNTA).

     
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    The development of supramolecular tools to modulate the excitonic properties of non-covalent assemblies paves the way to engineer new classes of semicondcuting materials relevant to flexible electronics. While controlling the assembly pathways of organic chromophores enables the formation of J-like and H-like aggregates, strategies to tailor the excitonic properties of pre-assembled aggregates through post-modification are scarce. In the present contribution, we combine supramolecular chemistry with redox chemistry to modulate the excitonic properties and solid-state morphologies of aggregates built from stacks of water-soluble perylene diimide building blocks. The n-doping of initially formed aggregates in an aqueous medium is shown to produce π–anion stacks for which spectroscopic properties unveil a non-negligible degree of electron–electron interactions. Oxidation of the n-doped intermediates produces metastable aggregates where free exciton bandwidths (Ex BW ) increase as a function of time. Kinetic data analysis reveals that the dynamic increase of free exciton bandwidth is associated with the formation of superstructures constructed by means of a nucleation-growth mechanism. By designing different redox-assisted assembly pathways, we highlight that the sacrificial electron donor plays a non-innocent role in regulating the structure–function properties of the final superstructures. Furthermore, supramolecular architectures formed via a nucleation-growth mechanism evolve into ribbon-like and fiber-like materials in the solid-state, as characterized by SEM and HRTEM. Through a combination of ground-state electronic absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry, spectroelectrochemistry, microscopy, and modeling, we show that redox-assisted assembly provides a means to reprogram the structure–function properties of pre-assembled aggregates. 
    more » « less