skip to main content

Title: Determination of binding affinity upon mutation for type I dockerin–cohesin complexes from C lostridium thermocellum and C lostridium cellulolyticum using deep sequencing
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1914-1928
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this

    We present 10 main-sequence ALPINE galaxies (log (M/M⊙) = 9.2−11.1 and ${\rm SFR}=23-190\, {\rm M_{\odot }\, yr^{-1}}$) at z ∼ 4.5 with optical [O ii] measurements from Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy and Subaru/MOIRCS narrow-band imaging. This is the largest such multiwavelength sample at these redshifts, combining various measurements in the ultraviolet, optical, and far-infrared including [C ii]158 $\mu$m line emission and dust continuum from ALMA and H α emission from Spitzer photometry. For the first time, this unique sample allows us to analyse the relation between [O ii] and total star-formation rate (SFR) and the interstellar medium (ISM) properties via [O ii]/[C ii] and [O ii]/H α luminosity ratios at z ∼ 4.5. The [O ii]−SFR relation at z ∼ 4.5 cannot be described using standard local descriptions, but is consistent with a metal-dependent relation assuming metallicities around $50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ solar. To explain the measured dust-corrected luminosity ratios of $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm [CII]}) \sim 0.98^{+0.21}_{-0.22}$ and $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm H\alpha }) \sim -0.22^{+0.13}_{-0.15}$ for our sample, ionization parameters log (U) < −2 and electron densities $\log (\rm n_e / {\rm [cm^{-3}]}) \sim 2.5-3$ are required. The former is consistent with galaxies at z ∼ 2−3, however lower than at z > 6. The latter may be slightly higher than expected given the galaxies’ specific SFR. The analysis of this pilot sample suggests that typical log (M/M⊙) > 9 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 to have broadly similar ISM properties as their descendants at z ∼ 2 and suggest a strong evolution of ISM properties since the epoch of reionization at z > 6.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Assessing the environmental factors that influence the ability of a threatened species to move through a landscape can be used to identify conservation actions that connect isolated populations. However, direct observations of species' movement are often limited, making the development of alternate approaches necessary. Here we use landscape genetic analyses to assess the impact of landscape features on the movement of individuals between local populations of a threatened snake, the eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus). We linked connectivity data with habitat information from two landscapes of similar size: a large region of unfragmented habitat and a previously studied fragmented landscape consisting of isolated patches of habitat. We used this analysis to identify features of the landscape where modification or acquisition would enhance population connectivity in the fragmented region. We found evidence that current connectivity was impacted by both contemporary land‐cover features, especially roads, and inherent landscape features such as elevation. Next, we derived estimates of expected movement ability using a recently developed pedigree‐based approach and least‐cost paths through the unfragmented landscape. We then used our pedigree and resistance map to estimate resistance polygons of the potential extent forS. catenatusmovement in the fragmented landscape. These polygons identify possible sites for future corridors connecting currently isolated populations in this landscape by linking the impact of future habitat modification or land acquisition to dispersal ability in this species. Overall, our study shows how modeling landscape resistance across differently fragmented landscapes can identify habitat features that affect contemporary movement in threatened species in fragmented landscapes and how this information can be used to guide mitigation actions whose goal is to connect isolated populations.

    more » « less
  3. The reduction potentials (reported vs. Fc + /Fc) for a series of Cp′ 3 Ln complexes (Cp′ = C 5 H 4 SiMe 3 , Ln = lanthanide) were determined via electrochemistry in THF with [ n Bu 4 N][BPh 4 ] as the supporting electrolyte. The Ln( iii )/Ln( ii ) reduction potentials for Ln = Eu, Yb, Sm, and Tm (−1.07 to −2.83 V) follow the expected trend for stability of 4f 7 , 4f 14 , 4f 6 , and 4f 13 Ln( ii ) ions, respectively. The reduction potentials for Ln = Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Lu, that form 4f n 5d 1 Ln( ii ) ions ( n = 2–14), fall in a narrow range of −2.95 V to −3.14 V. Only cathodic events were observed for La and Ce at −3.36 V and −3.43 V, respectively. The reduction potentials of the Ln( ii ) compounds [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cp′ 3 Ln] (Ln = Pr, Sm, Eu) match those of the Cp′ 3 Ln complexes. The reduction potentials of nine (C 5 Me 4 H) 3 Ln complexes were also studied and found to be 0.05–0.24 V more negative than those of the Cp′ 3 Ln compounds. 
    more » « less
  4. Summary

    Aging is associated with a large number of both phenotypic and molecular changes, but for most of these, it is not known whether these changes are detrimental, neutral, or protective. We have identified a conservedCaenorhabditis elegansGATA transcription factor/MTA‐1 homologegr‐1(lin‐40) that extends lifespan and promotes resistance to heat and UV stress when overexpressed. Expression ofegr‐1increases with age, suggesting that it may promote survival during normal aging. This increase in expression is dependent on the presence of the germline, raising the possibility thategr‐1expression is regulated by signals from the germline. In addition, loss ofegr‐1suppresses the long lifespan of insulin receptordaf‐2mutants. The DAF‐16 FOXO transcription factor is required for the increased stress resistance ofegr‐1overexpression mutants, andegr‐1is necessary for the proper regulation ofsod‐3(a reporter for DAF‐16 activity). These results indicate thategr‐1acts within the insulin signaling pathway.egr‐1can also activate the expression of its paralogegl‐27,another factor known to extend lifespan and increase stress resistance, suggesting that the two genes act in a common program to promote survival. These results identifyegr‐1as part of a longevity‐promoting circuit that changes with age in a manner that is beneficial for the lifespan of the organism.

    more » « less