- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the Fourteenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2020)
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The politics of identity: The unexpected role of political orientation on racial categorizations of Kamala HarrisThe 2020 US Presidential election was historic in that it featured the first woman of color, Kamala Harris, on a major-party ticket. Although Harris identifies as Black, her racial identity was widely scrutinized throughout the election, due to her mixed-race ancestry. Moreover, media coverage of Harris's racial identity appeared to vary based on that news outlet's political leaning and sometimes had prejudicial undertones. The current research investigated racial categorization of Harris and the role that political orientation and anti-Black prejudice might play in shaping these categorizations. Studies 1 and 2 tested the possibility that conservatives and liberals might mentally represent Harris differently, which we hypothesized would lead the two groups to differ in how they categorized her race. Contrary to our prediction, conservatives, and liberals mentally represented Harris similarly. Also surprising were the explicit racial categorization data. Conservatives labeled Harris as White more than liberals, who tended to categorize Harris as multiracial. This pattern was explained by anti-Black prejudice. Study 3 examined a potential political motivation that might explain this finding. We found that conservatives, more than liberals, judge having a non-White candidate on a Democratic ballot as an asset, which may lead conservatives to deny non-White candidates these identities.
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Discovery of mosquitocides from fungal extracts through a high-throughput cytotoxicity-screening approach
Mosquitoes transmit a variety of diseases. Due to widespread insecticide resistance, new effective pesticides are urgently needed. Entomopathogenic fungi are widely utilized to control pest insects in agriculture. We hypothesized that certain fungal metabolites may be effective insecticides against mosquitoes.
A high-throughput cytotoxicity-based screening approach was developed to search for insecticidal compounds in our newly established global fungal extract library. We first determined cell survival rates after adding various fungal extracts. Candidate insecticides were further analyzed using traditional larval and adult survival bioassays.
Twelve ethyl acetate extracts from a total of 192 fungal extracts displayed > 85% inhibition of cabbage looper ovary cell proliferation. Ten of these 12 candidates were confirmed to be toxic to
Anopheles gambiaeSua5B cell line, and six showed > 85% inhibition of Anophelesmosquito cell growth. Further bioassays determined a LC50, the lethal concentration that kills 50% of larval or adult mosquitoes, of 122 µg/mL and 1.7 µg/mosquito, respectively, after 24 h for extract 76F6 from Penicillium toxicarium. Conclusions
We established a high-throughput MTT-based cytotoxicity screening approach for the discovery of new mosquitocides from fungal extracts. We discovered a candidate extract from
P. toxicariumthat exhibited high toxicity to mosquito larvae and adults, and thus were able to demonstrate the value of our recently developed approach.more » Graphical abstract