skip to main content

Title:

Towards rectifying limitations on species delineation in dusky salamanders (Desmognathus: Plethodontidae): An ecoregion-drainage sampling grid reveals additional cryptic clades

Dusky salamanders (Desmognathus) constitute a large, species-rich group within the family Plethodontidae, and though their systematic relationships have been addressed extensively, most studies have centered on particular species complexes and therefore offer only piecemeal phylogenetic perspective on the genus. Recent work has revealed Desmognathus to be far more clade rich—35 reciprocally monophyletic clades versus 22 recognized species—than previously imagined, results that, in turn, provide impetus for additional survey effort within clades and across geographic areas thus far sparsely sampled. We conceived and implemented a sampling regime combining level IV ecoregions and independent river drainages to yield a geographic grid for comprehensive recovery of all genealogically exclusive clades. We sampled over 550 populations throughout the distribution of Desmognathus in the eastern United States of America and generated mitochondrial DNA sequence data (mtDNA; 1,991 bp) for 536 specimens. A Bayesian phylogenetic reconstruction of the resulting haplotypes revealed forty-five reciprocally monophyletic clades, eleven of which have never been included in a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction, and an additional three not represented in any molecular systematic survey. Although general limitations associated with mtDNA data preclude new species delineation, we profile each of the 45 clades and assign names to 10 new clades (following a protocol more » for previous clade nomenclature). We also redefine several species complexes and erect new informal species complexes. Our dataset, which contains topotypic samples for nearly every currently recognized species and most synonymies, will offer a robust framework for future efforts to delimit species within Desmognathus. « less
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
1656111
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10250791
Journal Name:
Zootaxa
Volume:
4734
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 61
ISSN:
1175-5326
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Initially described in 1882, Chromis enchrysurus , the Yellowtail Reeffish, was redescribed in 1982 to account for an observed color morph that possesses a white tail instead of a yellow one, but morphological and geographic boundaries between the two color morphs were not well understood. Taking advantage of newly collected material from submersible studies of deep reefs and photographs from rebreather dives, this study sought to determine whether the white-tailed Chromis is actually a color morph of Chromis enchrysurus or a distinct species. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I separated Chromis enchrysurus and the white-tailed Chromis into two reciprocally monophyletic clades. A principal component analysis based on 27 morphological characters separated the two groups into clusters that correspond with caudal-fin coloration, which was either known or presumed based on the specimen’s collection site according to biogeographic data on species boundaries in the Greater Caribbean. Genetic, morphological, and biogeographic data all indicate that the white-tailed Chromis is a distinct species, herein described as Chromis vanbebberae sp. nov. The discovery of a new species within a conspicuous group such as damselfishes in a well-studied region of the world highlights the importance of deep-reef exploration inmore »documenting undiscovered biodiversity.« less
  2. Recent studies have highlighted the underestimated diversity of the genus Diploderma Hallowell, 1861 in the Hengduan Mountain Region in Southwest China, but much of the region remains poorly surveyed for reptile diversity. In this study we describe two new species of Diploderma from the upper Jinsha and middle Yalong River Valley, based on evaluations of morphological, genetic, and distribution data. The two new species are morphologically most similar to D. angustelinea and D. vela, but they can be diagnosed from both recognized taxa and all remaining congeners by a suite of morphological features, particularly the distinct coloration of gular spots. Additionally, both new species either render other recognized species paraphyletic or are allopatric with respect to their morphologically similar congeners. Furthermore, we rediscover D. brevicaudum in the wild for the first time, which was known from historical museum specimens only. We estimate the phylogenetic position of D. brevicaudum within the genus Diploderma based on mitochondrial genealogy, and we provide an expanded diagnosis and comparisons against closely related congeners and provide a detailed description of coloration in life based on newly collected specimens. Our discoveries of the new Diploderma species further highlight the urgent conservation needs of the currently neglected hot-drymore »valley ecosystems in the Hengduan Mountain Region of China.« less
  3. Since 2010, the trypanorhynch tapeworm family Rhinoptericolidae Carvajal & Campbell, 1975 has housed just two distinctive, monotypic genera ( Rhinoptericola Carvajal & Campbell, 1975 and Nataliella Palm, 2010). However, global collections of tapeworms from sharks and rays over the last more than three decades brought to light the need for major revision of the family by suggesting a much greater species-level diversity for the nominal genus Rhinoptericola . Through synonymy and the description of new species, the number of species in the genus is increased from one to eight. A phylogenetic analysis of the D1–D3 gene region of 28S rRNA (28S), including seven of the now nine species of rhinoptericolids, and a broad sampling of the other Trypanobatoida is the first to recover a monophyletic Rhinoptericolidae. In addition to systematic revision, this study allowed for the first evaluation of the degree of intraspecific vs interspecific variation in 28S for adult trypanorhynchs across the various hosts and geographic localities from which they have been reported, suggesting a relatively consistent boundary for Rhinoptericola . It is further suggested that detailed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both the basal and metabasal armatures greatly aid in the interpretation of hook arrangement and shape.more »A schematic to streamline determination of the tentacular surface presented in scanning electron micrographs and line drawings of trypanorhynchs is presented for species with both two and four bothria. In combination, these methodological refinements can now be used as a model to resolve issues of classification and non-monophyly within both major lineages of the Trypanorhyncha. As a result of the taxonomic work, Rhinoptericola megacantha Carvajal & Campbell, 1975 (previously only known from the American cownose ray from the Chesapeake Bay and the Ticon cownose ray from the Gulf of Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil) is now known from an additional species of cownose ray and a species of stingray, and is revealed to have a transatlantic distribution. Data from SEM suggest a simpler interpretation of hook arrangement in the metabasal armature for Rhinoptercola and—in combination with 28S sequence data—support Shirleyrhynchus Beveridge & Campbell, 1988 (a former rhinoptericolid) as its junior synonym. The three species formerly assigned to Shirleyrhynchus are thus transferred to Rhinoptericola . Data from light microscopy on whole-mounted specimens and histological sections, SEM, and 28S showed the eutetrarhynchid Prochristianella jensenae Schaeffner & Beveridge, 2012b to be morphologically consistent with species of Rhinoptericola and it is thus transferred to the genus. The type series of P. jensenae was determined to be mixed, representing two distinct species which are here redescribed and described as new, respectively. Two additional novel species of Rhinoptericola are described from cownose rays from off Mozambique and the Gulf of California.« less
  4. Dutra, Walderez O. (Ed.)
    More than 100 years since the first description of Chagas Disease and with over 29,000 new cases annually due to vector transmission (in 2010), American Trypanosomiasis remains a Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD). This study presents the most comprehensive Trypanosoma cruzi sampling in terms of geographic locations and triatomine species analyzed to date and includes both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This addresses the gap of information from North and Central America. We incorporate new and previously published DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). These T . cruzi samples were collected over a broad geographic range including 111 parasite DNA samples extracted from triatomines newly collected across North and Central America, all of which were infected with T . cruzi in their natural environment. In addition, we present parasite reduced representation (Restriction site Associated DNA markers, RAD-tag) genomic nuclear data combined with the mitochondrial gene sequences for a subset of the triatomines (27 specimens) collected from Guatemala and El Salvador. Our mitochondrial phylogenetic reconstruction revealed two of the major mitochondrial lineages circulating across North and Central America, as well as the first ever mitochondrial data for TcBat from a triatomine collectedmore »in Central America. Our data also show that within mtTcIII, North and Central America represent an independent, distinct clade from South America, named here as mtTcIII NA-CA , geographically restricted to North and Central America. Lastly, the most frequent lineage detected across North and Central America, mtTcI, was also an independent, distinct clade from South America, noted as mtTcI NA-CA . Furthermore, nuclear genome data based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) showed genetic structure of lineage TcI from specimens collected in Guatemala and El Salvador supporting the hypothesis that genetic diversity at a local scale has a geographical component. Our multiscale analysis contributes to the understanding of the independent and distinct evolution of T . cruzi lineages in North and Central America regions.« less
  5. Coniochaeta (Coniochaetaceae, Ascomycota) is a diverse genus that includes a striking richness of undescribed species with endophytic lifestyles, especially in temperate and boreal plants and lichens. These endophytes frequently represent undescribed species that can clarify evolutionary relationships and trait evolution within clades of previously classified fungi. Here we extend the geographic, taxonomic, and host sampling presented in a previous analysis of the clade containing Coniochaeta endophytica, a recently described species occurring as an endophyte from North America; and C. prunicola, associated with necroses of stonefruit trees in South Africa. Our multi-locus analysis and examination of metadata for endophyte strains housed in the Robert L. Gilbertson Mycological Herbarium at the University of Arizona (ARIZ) (1) expands the geographic range of C. endophytica across a wider range of the USA than recognized previously; (2) shows that the ex-type of C. prunicola (CBS 120875) forms a well-supported clade with endophytes of native hosts in North Carolina and Michigan, USA; (3) reveals that the ex-paratype for C. prunicola (CBS 121445) forms a distinct clade with endophytes from North Carolina and Russia, is distinct morphologically from the other taxa considered here, and is described herein as Coniochaeta lutea; and (4) describes a new species, Coniochaetamore »palaoa, here identified as an endophyte of multiple plant lineages in the highlands and piedmont of North Carolina. Separation of CBS 120875 and CBS 121445 into C. prunicola sensu stricto and C. lutea is consistent with previously described genomic differences between these isolates, and morphological and functional differences among the four species (C. endophytica, C. prunicola, C. palaoa, and C. lutea) underscore the phylogenetic relationships described here. The resolving power of particular loci and the emerging perspective on the host- and geographic range of Coniochaeta and the C. endophytica / C. prunicola clade are discussed.« less