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Title: Valley-selective optical Stark effect of exciton-polaritons in a monolayer semiconductor

Selective breaking of degenerate energy levels is a well-known tool for coherent manipulation of spin states. Though most simply achieved with magnetic fields, polarization-sensitive optical methods provide high-speed alternatives. Exploiting the optical selection rules of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers, the optical Stark effect allows for ultrafast manipulation of valley-coherent excitons. Compared to excitons in these materials, microcavity exciton-polaritons offer a promising alternative for valley manipulation, with longer lifetimes, enhanced valley coherence, and operation across wider temperature ranges. Here, we show valley-selective control of polariton energies in WS2using the optical Stark effect, extending coherent valley manipulation to the hybrid light-matter regime. Ultrafast pump-probe measurements reveal polariton spectra with strong polarization contrast originating from valley-selective energy shifts. This demonstration of valley degeneracy breaking at picosecond timescales establishes a method for coherent control of valley phenomena in exciton-polaritons.

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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Nature Publishing Group
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Coherent control and manipulation of quantum degrees of freedom such as spins forms the basis of emerging quantum technologies. In this context, the robust valley degree of freedom and the associated valley pseudospin found in two‐dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides is a highly attractive platform. Valley polarization and coherent superposition of valley states have been observed in these systems even up to room temperature. Control of valley coherence is an important building block for the implementation of valley qubit. Large magnetic fields or high‐power lasers have been used in the past to demonstrate the control (initialization and rotation) of the valley coherent states. Here, the control of layer–valley coherence via strong coupling of valley excitons in bilayer WS2to microcavity photons is demonstrated by exploiting the pseudomagnetic field arising in optical cavities owing to the transverse electric–transverse magnetic (TE–TM)mode splitting. The use of photonic structures to generate pseudomagnetic fields which can be used to manipulate exciton‐polaritons presents an attractive approach to control optical responses without the need for large magnets or high‐intensity optical pump powers.

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