Sex types of papaya are controlled by a pair of nascent sex chromosomes, but molecular genetic mechanisms of sex determination and sex differentiation in papaya are still unclear. We performed comparative analysis of transcriptomic profiles of male and female floral buds at the early development stage before the initiation of reproductive organ primordia at which there is no morphological difference between male and female flowers. A total of 1734 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which 923 showed female-biased expression and 811 showed male-biased expression. Functional annotation revealed that genes related to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways, especially in abscisic acid and auxin pathways, were overrepresented in the DEGs. Transcription factor binding motifs, such as MYB2, GAMYB, and AP2/EREBP, were enriched in the promoters of the hormone-related DEGs, and transcription factors with those motifs also exhibited differential expression between sex types. Among these DEGs, we also identified 11 genes in the non-recombining region of the papaya sex chromosomes and 9 genes involved in stamen and carpel development. Our results suggested that sex differentiation in papaya may be regulated by multiple layers of regulation and coordination and involved transcriptional, epigenetic, and phytohormone regulation. Hormones, especially ABA and auxin, transcription factors, and genes in the non-recombination region of the sex chromosome could be involved in this process. Our findings may facilitate the elucidation of signal transduction and gene interaction in sex differentiation of unisexual flowers in papaya.
Sex dimorphism and gene expression were studied in developing catkins in 159 F2 individuals from the bioenergy crop Salix purpurea, and potential mechanisms and pathways for regulating sex development were explored. Differential expression, eQTL, bisulfite sequencing, and network analysis were used to characterize sex dimorphism, detect candidate master regulator genes, and identify pathways through which the sex determination region (SDR) may mediate sex dimorphism. Eleven genes are presented as candidates for master regulators of sex, supported by gene expression and network analyses. These include genes putatively involved in hormone signaling, epigenetic modification, and regulation of transcription. eQTL analysis revealed a suite of transcription factors and genes involved in secondary metabolism and floral development that were predicted to be under direct control of the sex determination region. Furthermore, data from bisulfite sequencing and small RNA sequencing revealed strong differences in expression between males and females that would implicate both of these processes in sex dimorphism pathways. These data indicate that the mechanism of sex determination in Salix purpurea is likely different from that observed in the related genus Populus. This further demonstrates the dynamic nature of SDRs in plants, which involves a multitude of mechanisms of sex determination and a high rate of turnover.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Oxford University Press
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Horticulture Research
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The Salicaceae, including
Populus and Salix, are dioecious perennials that utilize different sex determination systems. This family provides a useful system to better understand the evolution of dioecy and sex chromosomes.
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, 94003, was self‐ and cross‐pollinated and progeny sex ratios were used to test hypotheses on possible mechanisms of sex determination. To delimit genomic regions associated with monoecious expression, the 94003 genome sequence was assembled and DNA‐ and RNA‐Seq of progeny inflorescences was performed. Salix purpurea
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We present a refined, two‐gene sex determination model for
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Qualitative analysis of mating behaviors demonstrated that
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Our results provide comprehensive analyses and new insights regarding the endogenous interactions in the brain–gonad–behavior axis. Moreover, this study revealed the crucial candidate genes and neural signaling pathways of different brain regions that are involved in modulating brain dimorphism and male mating behavior in zebrafish, which would significantly light up the understanding the neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms modulating brain dimorphism and male mating behavior in zebrafish and other teleost fish.
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