skip to main content

Title: Structured 3D linear space–time light bullets by nonlocal nanophotonics

We propose the generation of 3D linear light bullets propagating in free space using a single passive nonlocal optical surface. The nonlocal nanophotonics can generate space–time coupling without any need for bulky pulse-shaping and spatial modulation techniques. Our approach provides simultaneous control of various properties of the light bullets, including the external properties such as the group velocity and the propagation distance, and internal degrees of freedom such as the spin angular momentum and the orbital angular momentum.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Light: Science & Applications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We perform a full 3D general relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) simulation of an equal-mass, spinning, binary black hole approaching merger, surrounded by a circumbinary disk and with a minidisk around each black hole. For this purpose, we evolve the ideal GRMHD equations on top of an approximated spacetime for the binary that is valid in every position of space, including the black hole horizons, during the inspiral regime. We use relaxed initial data for the circumbinary disk from a previous long-term simulation, where the accretion is dominated by am= 1 overdensity called the lump. We compare our new spinning simulation with a previous non-spinning run, studying how spin influences the minidisk properties. We analyze the accretion from the inner edge of the lump to the black hole, focusing on the angular momentum budget of the fluid around the minidisks. We find that minidisks in the spinning case have more mass over a cycle than the non-spinning case. However, in both cases we find that most of the mass received by the black holes is delivered by the direct plunging of material from the lump. We also analyze the morphology and variability of the electromagnetic fluxes, and we find they share the same periodicities of the accretion rate. In the spinning case, we find that the outflows are stronger than the non-spinning case. Our results will be useful to understand and produce realistic synthetic light curves and spectra, which can be used in future observations.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Spin Hall oscillators (SHO) are promising candidates for the generation, detection and amplification of high frequency signals, that are tunable through a wide range of operating frequencies. They offer to be read out electrically, magnetically and optically in combination with a simple bilayer design. Here, we experimentally study the spatial dependence and spectral properties of auto-oscillations in SHO devices based on Pt(7 nm)/Ni80Fe20(5 nm) tapered nanowires. Using Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we observe two individual self-localized spin-wave bullets that oscillate at two distinct frequencies (5.2 GHz and 5.45 GHz) and are localized at different positions separated by about 750 nm within the SHO. This state of a tapered SHO has been predicted by a Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model, but not yet been directly confirmed experimentally. We demonstrate that the observed bullets can be individually synchronized to external microwave signals, leading to a frequency entrainment, linewidth reduction and increase in oscillation amplitude for the bullet that is selected by the microwave frequency. At the same time, the amplitude of other parasitic modes decreases, which promotes the single-mode operation of the SHO. Finally, the synchronization of the spin-wave bullets is studied as a function of the microwave power. We believe that our findings promote the realization of extended spin Hall oscillators accomodating several distinct spin-wave bullets, that jointly cover an extended range of tunability.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    We present a survey for photometric variability in young, low-mass brown dwarfs with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 23 objects in our sample show robust signatures of youth and share properties with directly imaged exoplanets. We present three new young objects: 2MASS J03492367+0635078, 2MASS J09512690−8023553, and 2MASS J07180871−6415310. We detect variability in 13 young objects, and find that young brown dwarfs are highly likely to display variability across the L2–T4 spectral type range. In contrast, the field dwarf variability occurrence rate drops for spectral types >L9. We examine the variability amplitudes of young objects and find an enhancement in maximum amplitudes compared to field dwarfs. We speculate that the observed range of amplitudes within a spectral type may be influenced by secondary effects such as viewing inclination and/or rotation period. We combine our new rotation periods with the literature to investigate the effects of mass on angular momentum evolution. While high-mass brown dwarfs (>30MJup) spin up over time, the same trend is not apparent for lower-mass objects (<30MJup), likely due to the small number of measured periods for old, low-mass objects. The rotation periods of companion brown dwarfs and planetary-mass objects are consistent with those of isolated objects with similar ages and masses, suggesting similar angular momentum histories. Within the AB Doradus group, we find a high-variability occurrence rate and evidence for common angular momentum evolution. The results are encouraging for future variability searches in directly imaged exoplanets with facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope and 30 m telescopes.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    In most practical scenarios, optical susceptibilities can be treated as a local property of a medium. For example, in the context of nonlinear optics we can typically treat the Kerr and Raman response as local, such that optical fields at one location do not produce a nonlinear response at distinct locations in space. This is because the electronic and vibrational disturbances produced within the material are confined to a region that is smaller than an optical wavelength. By comparison, Brillouin interactions, mediated by traveling-wave acoustic phonons, can result in a highly nonlocal nonlinear response as the elastic waves generated in the process can occupy a region in space much larger than an optical wavelength. The unique properties of these interactions can be exploited to engineer new types of processes, where highly delocalized phonon modes serve as an engineerable channel that mediates scattering processes between light waves propagating in distinct optical waveguides. These types of nonlocal optomechanical responses have recently been demonstrated as the basis for information transduction, however the nontrivial dynamics of such systems has yet to be explored. In this work, we show that the third-order nonlinear process resulting from spatially extended Brillouin-active phonon modes involves mixing products from spatially separated, optically decoupled waveguides, yielding a nonlocal susceptibility. Building on these concepts, we illustrate how nontrivial multi-mode acoustic interference can produce a nonlocal susceptibility with a multi-pole frequency response, as the basis for new optical and microwave signal processing schemes within traveling wave systems.

    more » « less

    Most black holes possess accretion discs. Models of such discs inform observations and constrain the properties of the black holes and their surrounding medium. Here, we study shocks in a thin isothermal black hole accretion flow. Modelling infinitesimal viscosity allows the use of multiple-scales matched asymptotic methods. We thus derive the first explicit calculations of isothermal shock stability. We find that the inner shock is always unstable, and the outer shock is always stable. The growth/decay rates of perturbations depend only on an effective potential and the incoming–outgoing flow difference at the shock location. We give a prescription of accretion regimes in terms of angular momentum and black hole radius. Accounting for viscous angular momentum dissipation implies unstable outer shocks in much of parameter space, even for realistic viscous Reynolds numbers of the order ≈1020.

    more » « less