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Title: A Comparison of FDTD-Predicted Surface Magnetic Fields with SuperMAG, INTERMAGNET, and BATS-R-US and RIM Virtual Magnetometers during a Geomagnetic Storm
The historical record indicates the possibility of intense coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Energized particles and magnetic fields ejected by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) towards the Earth may disrupt the Earth’s magnetosphere and generate a geomagnetic storm. During a geomagnetic storm, the induced geoelectric field can drive geomagnetically-induced currents (GICs) that flow through ground-based conductors. These GICs have the potential to damage high voltage power transmission systems and cause blackouts. As part of the NSF-funded Comprehensive Hazard Analysis for Resilience to Geomagnetic Extreme Disturbances (CHARGED) project, a solar-wind-to-lithosphere numerical model of the geoelectric field is being developed. The purpose of this new tool is to drive a new generation of GIC forecasting. As a part of that work, Maxwell’s equations, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) models of the last stage of the Sun-to-Earth propagation path is being coupled to output generated by the Block Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) magnetohydrodynamics model and the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) of ionospheric dynamics. Specifically, three-dimensional (3-D) BATS-R-US and RIM-predicted ionospheric currents occurring in the lower ionosphere during and around the time of the March 17, 2015 storm are modeled in 3-D FDTD models of North America. These models start at a depth of 150 more » km, and they account for ionospheric currents occurring up to an altitude of 115 km. The resolution of the FDTD models is 22 km (East-West) x 11 km (North-South) x 5 km (radially), and they account for 3-D lithosphere conductivities provided by the U.S. Geological Survey. The FDTD-calculated results are compared with surface magnetic fields measured in the region by SuperMAG and INTERMAGNET magnetometers. The FDTD results are also compared with virtual magnetometer data, which calculates the perturbation of the surface magnetic field using output from the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamics model. Comparison plots and an analysis of the results will be provided. « less
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Proc. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting
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National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Faraday's law of induction is responsible for setting up a geoelectric field due to the variations in the geomagnetic field caused by ionospheric currents. This drives geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) which flow in large ground‐based technological infrastructure such as high‐voltage power lines. The geoelectric field is often a localized phenomenon exhibiting significant variations over spatial scales of only hundreds of kilometers. This is due to the complex spatiotemporal behavior of electrical currents flowing in the ionosphere and/or large gradients in the ground conductivity due to highly structured local geological properties. Over some regions, and during large storms, both of these effects become significant. In this study, we quantify the regional variability ofdB/dtusing closely placed IMAGE stations in northern Fennoscandia. The dependency between regional variability, solar wind conditions, and geomagnetic indices are also investigated. Finally, we assess the significance of spatial geomagnetic variations to modeling GICs across a transmission line. Key results from this study are as follows: (1) Regional geomagnetic disturbances are important in modeling GIC during strong storms; (2)dB/dtcan vary by several times up to a factor of three compared to the spatial average; (3)dB/dtand its regional variation is coupled to the energy deposited into the magnetosphere; andmore »(4) regional variability can be more accurately captured and predicted from a local index as opposed to a global one. These results demonstrate the need for denser magnetometer networks at high latitudes where transmission lines extending hundreds of kilometers are present.

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  3. Abstract

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  4. Abstract

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