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- Journal of Materials Chemistry A
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- National Science Foundation
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Reconstructing two-dimensional defects in CuO nanowires for efficient CO 2 electroreduction to ethyleneHere we report that in situ reconstructed Cu two-dimensional (2D) defects in CuO nanowires during CO 2 RR lead to significantly enhanced activity and selectivity of C 2 H 4 compared to the CuO nanoplatelets. Specifically, the CuO nanowires achieve high faradaic efficiency of 62% for C 2 H 4 and a partial current density of 324 mA cm −2 yet at a low potential of −0.56 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode. Structural evolution characterization and in situ Raman spectra reveal that the high yield of C 2 H 4 on CuO nanowires is attributed to the in situ reduction of CuO to Cu followed by structural reconstruction to form 2D defects, e.g. , stacking faults and twin boundaries, which improve the CO production rate and *CO adsorption strength. This finding may provide a paradigm for the rational design of nanostructured catalysts for efficient CO 2 electroreduction to C 2 H 4 .
Switching CO2 Electroreduction Selectivity Between C1 and C2 Hydrocarbons on Cu Gas-Diffusion ElectrodesRegulating the selectivity toward a target hydrocarbon product is still the focus of CO2 electroreduction. Here, we discover that the original surface Cu species in Cu gas-diffusion electrodes plays a more important role than the surface roughness, local pH, and facet in governing the selectivity toward C1 or C2 hydrocarbons. The selectivity toward C2H4 progressively increases, while CH4 decreases steadily upon lowering the Cu oxidation species fraction. At a relatively low electrodeposition voltage of 1.5 V, the Cu gas-diffusion electrode with the highest Cuδ+/Cu0 ratio favors the pathways of hydrogenation to form CH4 with maximum Faradaic efficiency of 65.4% and partial current density of 228 mA cm−2 at −0.83 V vs RHE. At 2.0 V, the Cu gas-diffusion electrode with the lowest Cuδ+/Cu0 ratio prefers C–C coupling to form C2+ products with Faradaic efficiency topping 80.1% at −0.75 V vs RHE, where the Faradaic efficiency of C2H4 accounts for 46.4% and the partial current density of C2H4 achieves 279 mA cm−2. This work demonstrates that the selectivity from CH4 to C2H4 is switchable by tuning surface Cu species composition of Cu gas-diffusion electrodes.
Recent emphasis on carbon dioxide utilization has necessitated the exploration of different catalyst compositions other than copper-based systems that can significantly improve the activity and selectivity towards specific CO2 reduction products at low applied potential. In this study, a binary CoTe has been reported as an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2reduction in aqueous medium under ambient conditions at neutral pH. CoTe showed high Faradaic efficiency and selectivity of 86.83 and 75%, respectively, for acetic acid at very low potential of − 0.25 V vs RHE. More intriguingly, C1 products like formic acid was formed preferentially at slightly higher applied potential achieving high formation rate of 547.24 μmol cm−2 h−1 at − 1.1 V vs RHE. CoTe showed better CO2RR activity when compared with Co3O4, which can be attributed to the enhanced electrochemical activity of the catalytically active transition metal center as well as improved intermediate adsorption on the catalyst surface. While reduced anion electronegativity and improved lattice covalency in tellurides enhance the electrochemical activity of Co, high d-electron density improves the intermediate CO adsorption on the catalyst site leading to CO2reduction at lower applied potential and high selectivity for C2products. CoTe also shows stable CO2RR catalytic activity for 50 h and low Tafel slope (50.3 mV dec–1) indicating faster reaction kinetics and robustmore »
Nanostructured core–shell metal borides–oxides as highly efficient electrocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water oxidationOxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts are critical components of photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. Herein, nanostructured metal boride MB (M = Co, Fe) electrocatalysts, which have been synthesized by a Sn/SnCl 2 redox assisted solid-state method, were integrated with WO 3 thin films to build heterojunction photoanodes. As-obtained MB modified WO 3 photoanodes exhibit enhanced charge carrier transport, amended separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, prolonged hole lifetime and increased charge carrier density. Surface modification of CoB and FeB significantly enhances the photocurrent density of WO 3 photoanodes from 0.53 to 0.83 and 0.85 mA cm −2 , respectively, in transient chronoamperometry (CA) at 1.23 V vs. RHE (V RHE ) under interrupted illumination in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte (pH 7), corresponding to an increase of 1.6 relative to pristine WO 3 . In contrast, the pristine MB thin film electrodes do not produce noticeable photocurrent during water oxidation. The metal boride catalysts transform in situ to a core–shell structure with a metal boride core and a metal oxide (MO, M = Co, Fe) surface layer. When coupled to WO 3 thin films, the CoB@CoO x nanostructures exhibit a higher catalytic enhancement than corresponding pure cobaltmore »
Rational design and synthesis of efficient catalysts for electrochemical CO 2 reduction is a critical step towards practical CO 2 electrolyzer systems. In this work, we report a strategy to tune the catalytic property of a metallic Pd catalyst by coating its surface with a polydiallyldimethyl ammonium (PDDA) polymer layer. The resulting PDDA-functionalized Pd/C catalysts exhibit an enhanced CO faradaic efficiency of ∼93% together with a current density of 300 mA cm −2 at −0.65 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in comparison to non-functionalized and commercial Pd/C catalysts. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the improvement can be attributed to the electron transfer from the quaternary ammonium groups of PDDA to Pd nanoparticles, weakening the CO binding energy on Pd. The weak CO adsorption on Pd was further confirmed by the CO temperature programmed desorption measurement and operando attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared analysis. Therefore, the incorporation of electron-donating groups could be an effective strategy to decrease the CO binding energy of a metallic catalyst for a high CO selectivity in CO 2 electroreduction.