skip to main content

Title: Comment un électron induit un dommage oxydatif dans l’ADN
How can an electron induce oxidative damage in DNA DNA damage caused by the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) has been well-studied in the gas and solid phases. However, understanding of this process at the fundamental level in solution is still a challenge. The electrons, after losing their kinetic energy via ionization and excitation events, are thermalized and undergo a multistep hydration process with a time constant of ca. ≤ 1 ps, to becoming fully trapped as a hydrated or solvated electron (esol- or eaq-). Prior to the formation of esol-, the electron exists in its presolvated (or prehydrated) state (epre-) with no kinetic energy. We used picosecond pulse radiolysis to generate electrons in water or in liquid diethylene glycol (DEG) to observe the dynamics of capture of these electrons by DNA/RNA bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides. In diethylene glycol, we demonstrate that unlike esol- and epre-, eqf- effectively attaches itself to the RNA-nucleoside, ribothymidine, forming the excited state of the anion that undergoes the N1-C1 ́ glycosidic bond dissociation. Thanks to DEA, this process induced in fact by eqf- leads to an oxidation of the parent molecule similar to the hydroxyl radical (•OH), leading to the same glycosidic bond (N1-C1 ́) cleavage.
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Les Actualités chimiques
Avril 2020
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Genetic information is encoded in the DNA double helix, which, in its physiological milieu, is characterized by the iconical Watson-Crick nucleo-base pairing. Recent NMR relaxation experiments revealed the transient presence of an alternative, Hoogsteen (HG) base pairing pattern in naked DNA duplexes, and estimated its relative stability and lifetime. In contrast with DNA, such structures were not observed in RNA duplexes. Understanding HG base pairing is important because the underlying "breathing" motion between the two conformations can significantly modulate protein binding. However, a detailed mechanistic insight into the transition pathways and kinetics is still missing. We performed enhanced sampling simulation (with combined metadynamics and adaptive force-bias method) and Markov state modeling to obtain accurate free energy, kinetics, and the intermediates in the transition pathway between Watson-Crick and HG base pairs for both naked B-DNA and A-RNA duplexes. The Markov state model constructed from our unbiased MD simulation data revealed previously unknown complex extrahelical intermediates in the seemingly simple process of base flipping in B-DNA. Extending our calculation to A-RNA, for which HG base pairing is not observed experimentally, resulted in relatively unstable, single-hydrogen-bonded, distorted Hoogsteen-like bases. Unlike B-DNA, the transition pathway primarily involved base paired and intrahelical intermediates with transitionmore »timescales much longer than that of B-DNA. The seemingly obvious flip-over reaction coordinate (i.e., the glycosidic torsion angle) is unable to resolve the intermediates. Instead, a multidimensional picture involving backbone dihedral angles and distance between hydrogen bond donor and acceptor atoms is required to gain insight into the molecular mechanism.« less
  2. This review article provides a concise overview of electron involvement in DNA radiation damage. The review begins with the various states of radiation-produced electrons: Secondary electrons (SE), low energy electrons (LEE), electrons at near zero kinetic energy in water (quasi-free electrons, (e−qf)) electrons in the process of solvation in water (presolvated electrons, e−pre), and fully solvated electrons (e−aq). A current summary of the structure of e−aq, and its reactions with DNA-model systems is presented. Theoretical works on reduction potentials of DNA-bases were found to be in agreement with experiments. This review points out the proposed role of LEE-induced frank DNA-strand breaks in ion-beam irradiated DNA. The final section presents radiation-produced electron-mediated site-specific formation of oxidative neutral aminyl radicals from azidonucleosides and the evidence of radiosensitization provided by these aminyl radicals in azidonucleoside-incorporated breast cancer cells.
  3. Among the radicals (hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen atom (H•), and solvated electron (esol−)) that are generated via water radiolysis, •OH has been shown to be the main transient species responsible for radiation damage to DNA via the indirect effect. Reactions of these radicals with DNA-model systems (bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides of defined sequences, single stranded (ss) and double stranded (ds) highly polymeric DNA, nucleohistones) were extensively investigated. The timescale of the reactions of these radicals with DNA-models range from nanoseconds (ns) to microseconds (µs) at ambient temperature and are controlled by diffusion or activation. However, those studies carried out in dilute solutions that model radiation damage to DNA via indirect action do not turn out to be valid in dense biological medium, where solute and water molecules are in close contact (e.g., in cellular environment). In that case, the initial species formed from water radiolysis are two radicals that are ultrashort-lived and charged: the water cation radical (H2O•+) and prethermalized electron. These species are captured by target biomolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins, etc.) in competition with their inherent pathways of proton transfer and relaxation occurring in less than 1 picosecond. In addition, the direct-type effects of radiation, i.e., ionization of macromoleculemore »plus excitations proximate to ionizations, become important. The holes (i.e., unpaired spin or cation radical sites) created by ionization undergo fast spin transfer across DNA subunits. The exploration of the above-mentioned ultrafast processes is crucial to elucidate our understanding of the mechanisms that are involved in causing DNA damage via direct-type effects of radiation. Only recently, investigations of these ultrafast processes have been attempted by studying concentrated solutions of nucleosides/tides under ambient conditions. Recent advancements of laser-driven picosecond electron accelerators have provided an opportunity to address some long-term puzzling questions in the context of direct-type and indirect effects of DNA damage. In this review, we have presented key findings that are important to elucidate mechanisms of complex processes including excess electron-mediated bond breakage and hole transfer, occurring at the single nucleoside/tide level.« less
  4. Abstract

    Herein, phase transitions of a class of thermally-responsive polymers, namely a homopolymer, diblock, and triblock copolymer, were studied to gain mechanistic insight into nanoscale assembly dynamics via variable temperature liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (VT-LCTEM) correlated with variable temperature small angle X-ray scattering (VT-SAXS). We study thermoresponsive poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA)-based block copolymers and mitigate sample damage by screening electron flux and solvent conditions during LCTEM and by evaluating polymer survival viapost-mortemmatrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). Our multimodal approach, utilizing VT-LCTEM with MS validation and VT-SAXS, is generalizable across polymeric systems and can be used to directly image solvated nanoscale structures and thermally-induced transitions. Our strategy of correlating VT-SAXS with VT-LCTEM provided direct insight into transient nanoscale intermediates formed during the thermally-triggered morphological transformation of a PDEGMA-based triblock. Notably, we observed the temperature-triggered formation and slow relaxation of core-shell particles with complex microphase separation in the core by both VT-SAXS and VT-LCTEM.

  5. Minor structural modifications to the DNA and RNA nucleobases have a significant effect on their excited state dynamics and electronic relaxation pathways. In this study, the excited state dynamics of 7-deazaguanosine and guanosine 5′-monophosphate are investigated in aqueous solution and in a mixture of methanol and water using femtosecond broadband transient absorption spectroscopy following excitation at 267 nm. The transient spectra are collected using photon densities that ensure no parasitic multiphoton-induced signal from solvated electrons. The data can be fit satisfactorily using a two- or three-component kinetic model. By analyzing the results from steady-state, time-resolved, computational calculations, and the methanol–water mixture, the following general relaxation mechanism is proposed for both molecules, Lb → La → 1πσ*(ICT) → S0, where the 1πσ*(ICT) stands for an intramolecular charge transfer excited singlet state with significant πσ* character. In general, longer lifetimes for internal conversion are obtained for 7-deazaguanosine compared to guanosine 5′-monophosphate. Internal conversion of the 1πσ*(ICT) state to the ground state occurs on a similar time scale of a few picoseconds in both molecules. Collectively, the results demonstrate that substitution of a single nitrogen atom for a methine (C–H) group at position seven of the guanine moiety stabilizes the 1ππ* Lb andmore »La states and alters the topology of their potential energy surfaces in such a way that the relaxation dynamics in 7-deazaguanosine are slowed down compared to those in guanosine 5′-monophosphate but not for the internal conversion of 1πσ*(ICT) state to the ground state.« less