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Title: Membrane Remodeling by DNA Origami Nanorods: Experiments Exploring the Parameter Space for Vesicle Remodeling
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Page Range / eLocation ID:
6219 to 6231
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract Objectives

    Bomb pulse (BP) radiocarbon (14C) dating methods are used by forensic anthropologists to estimate the year‐of‐death (YOD) of unidentified individuals. Method resolution and accuracy depend on establishing lag times, or the difference between a tissue's BP14C‐derived year and the YOD, of various tissue types from known deceased persons. Bone lag times span many years and are thought to increase with age as a function of slowing remodeling rates. However, remodeling rates for various skeletal elements, bone structures and phases are not well known.

    Materials and Methods

    Here a simple method is used to estimate bone remodeling rates from a compilation of published cortical femur bone collagen BP14C measurements (n = 102). Linear regression models and nonparametric tests are used to detect changes in lag times and remodeling rates with increasing age‐at‐death.


    Remodeling rates and lag times of 3.5%/year and 29 years, respectively, are estimated from individuals aged 40–97 years. In contrast to previous work, the analysis yielded modest and negligible changes in remodeling rates and lag times with advancing age. Moreover, statistically significant differences in remodeling rates and lag times were not found between reported females and males.


    Implications for the temporal contexts within an individual's lifetime of biogeochemical data in archaeology and forensic anthropology are discussed, warranting additional BP14C studies of known individuals and integration with histomorphometric analysis.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    The Neurospora crassa GUL-1 is part of the COT-1 pathway, which plays key roles in regulating polar hyphal growth and cell wall remodeling. We show that GUL-1 is a bona fide RNA-binding protein (RBP) that can associate with 828 “core” mRNA species. When cell wall integrity (CWI) is challenged, expression of over 25% of genomic RNA species are modulated (2,628 mRNAs, including the GUL-1 mRNA). GUL-1 binds mRNAs of genes related to translation, cell wall remodeling, circadian clock, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as well as CWI and MAPK pathway components. GUL-1 interacts with over 100 different proteins, including stress-granule and P-body proteins, ER components and components of the MAPK, COT-1, and STRIPAK complexes. Several additional RBPs were also shown to physically interact with GUL-1. Under stress conditions, GUL-1 can localize to the ER and affect the CWI pathway—evident via altered phosphorylation levels of MAK-1, interaction with mak-1 transcript, and involvement in the expression level of the transcription factor adv-1 . We conclude that GUL-1 functions in multiple cellular processes, including the regulation of cell wall remodeling, via a mechanism associated with the MAK-1 pathway and stress-response. 
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  3. van Steensel, Bas (Ed.)

    Extra-chromosomal selfish DNA elements can evade the risk of being lost at every generation by behaving as chromosome appendages, thereby ensuring high fidelity segregation and stable persistence in host cell populations. The yeast 2-micron plasmid and episomes of the mammalian gammaherpes and papilloma viruses that tether to chromosomes and segregate by hitchhiking on them exemplify this strategy. We document for the first time the utilization of a SWI/SNF-type chromatin remodeling complex as a conduit for chromosome association by a selfish element. One principal mechanism for chromosome tethering by the 2-micron plasmid is the bridging interaction of the plasmid partitioning proteins (Rep1 and Rep2) with the yeast RSC2 complex and the plasmid partitioning locusSTB. We substantiate this model by multiple lines of evidence derived from genomics, cell biology and interaction analyses. We describe a Rep-STBbypass system in which a plasmid engineered to non-covalently associate with the RSC complex mimics segregation by chromosome hitchhiking. Given the ubiquitous prevalence of SWI/SNF family chromatin remodeling complexes among eukaryotes, it is likely that the 2-micron plasmid paradigm or analogous ones will be encountered among other eukaryotic selfish elements.

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