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Title: Precision Modification of Native Antibodies
Antibodies, particularly of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotype, are a group of biomolecules that are extensively used as affinity reagents for many applications in research, disease diagnostics, and therapy. Most of these applications require antibodies to be modified with specific functional moieties, including fluorophores, drugs, and proteins. Thus, a variety of methodologies have been developed for the covalent labeling of antibodies. The most common methods stably attach functional molecules to lysine or cysteine residues, which unavoidably results in heterogeneous products that cannot be further purified. In an effort to prepare homogeneous antibody conjugates, bioorthogonal handles have been site-specifically introduced via enzymatic treatment, genetic code expansion, or genetically encoded tagging, followed by functionalization using bioorthogonal conjugation reactions. The resulting homogeneous products have proven superior to their heterogeneous counterparts for both in vitro and in vivo usage. Nevertheless, additional chemical treatment or protein engineering of antibodies is required for incorporation of the bioorthogonal handles, processes that often affect antibody folding, stability, and/or production yield and cost. Accordingly, concurrent with advances in the fields of bioorthogonal chemistry and protein engineering, there is growing interest in site-specifically labeling native (nonengineered) antibodies without chemical or enzymatic treatments. In this review, we highlight recent strategies for more » producing site-specific native antibody conjugates and provide a comprehensive summary of the merits and disadvantages of these strategies. « less
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Bioconjugate Chemistry
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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