skip to main content

Title: A highly contiguous nuclear genome assembly of the mandarinfish Synchiropus splendidus (Syngnathiformes: Callionymidae)
Abstract The fish order Syngnathiformes has been referred to as a collection of misfit fishes, comprising commercially important fish such as red mullets as well as the highly diverse seahorses, pipefishes, and seadragons—the well-known family Syngnathidae, with their unique adaptations including male pregnancy. Another ornate member of this order is the species mandarinfish. No less than two types of chromatophores have been discovered in the spectacularly colored mandarinfish: the cyanophore (producing blue color) and the dichromatic cyano-erythrophore (producing blue and red). The phylogenetic position of mandarinfish in Syngnathiformes, and their promise of additional genetic discoveries beyond the chromatophores, made mandarinfish an appealing target for whole-genome sequencing. We used linked sequences to create synthetic long reads, producing a highly contiguous genome assembly for the mandarinfish. The genome assembly comprises 483 Mbp (longest scaffold 29 Mbp), has an N50 of 12 Mbp, and an L50 of 14 scaffolds. The assembly completeness is also high, with 92.6% complete, 4.4% fragmented, and 2.9% missing out of 4584 BUSCO genes found in ray-finned fishes. Outside the family Syngnathidae, the mandarinfish represents one of the most contiguous syngnathiform genome assemblies to date. The mandarinfish genomic resource will likely serve as a high-quality outgroup to syngnathid fish, more » and furthermore for research on the genomic underpinnings of the evolution of novel pigmentation. « less
Authors:
;
Award ID(s):
2015301
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10292215
Journal Name:
G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics
Volume:
11
Issue:
12
ISSN:
2160-1836
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Background

    The blue catfish is of great value in aquaculture and recreational fisheries. The F1 hybrids of female channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) × male blue catfish (Ictalurusfurcatus) have been the primary driver of US catfish production in recent years because of superior growth, survival, and carcass yield. The channel–blue hybrid also provides an excellent model to investigate molecular mechanisms of environment-dependent heterosis. However, transcriptome and methylome studies suffered from low alignment rates to the channel catfish genome due to divergence, and the genome resources for blue catfish are not publicly available.

    Results

    The blue catfish genome assembly is 841.86 Mbp in length with excellent continuity (8.6 Mbp contig N50, 28.2 Mbp scaffold N50) and completeness (98.6% Eukaryota and 97.0% Actinopterygii BUSCO). A total of 30,971 protein-coding genes were predicted, of which 21,781 were supported by RNA sequencing evidence. Phylogenomic analyses revealed that it diverged from channel catfish approximately 9 million years ago with 15.7 million fixed nucleotide differences. The within-species single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density is 0.32% between the most aquaculturally important blue catfish strains (D&B and Rio Grande). Gene family analysis discovered significant expansion of immune-related families in the blue catfish lineage, which may contribute to disease resistance in blue catfish.

    more »Conclusions

    We reported the first high-quality, chromosome-level assembly of the blue catfish genome, which provides the necessary genomic tool kit for transcriptome and methylome analysis, SNP discovery and marker-assisted selection, gene editing and genome engineering, and reproductive enhancement of the blue catfish and hybrid catfish.

    « less
  2. Gossmann, Toni (Ed.)
    Abstract Spiders (Araneae) have a diverse spectrum of morphologies, behaviors, and physiologies. Attempts to understand the genomic-basis of this diversity are often hindered by their large, heterozygous, and AT-rich genomes with high repeat content resulting in highly fragmented, poor-quality assemblies. As a result, the key attributes of spider genomes, including gene family evolution, repeat content, and gene function, remain poorly understood. Here, we used Illumina and Dovetail Chicago technologies to sequence the genome of the long-jawed spider Tetragnatha kauaiensis, producing an assembly distributed along 3,925 scaffolds with an N50 of ∼2 Mb. Using comparative genomics tools, we explore genome evolution across available spider assemblies. Our findings suggest that the previously reported and vast genome size variation in spiders is linked to the different representation and number of transposable elements. Using statistical tools to uncover gene-family level evolution, we find expansions associated with the sensory perception of taste, immunity, and metabolism. In addition, we report strikingly different histories of chemosensory, venom, and silk gene families, with the first two evolving much earlier, affected by the ancestral whole genome duplication in Arachnopulmonata (∼450 Ma) and exhibiting higher numbers. Together, our findings reveal that spider genomes are highly variable and that genomic noveltymore »may have been driven by the burst of an ancient whole genome duplication, followed by gene family and transposable element expansion.« less
  3. Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) is an efficient predatory biological control agent used throughout the Mediterranean Basin in tomato crops but regarded as a pest in northern European countries. From the family Miridae, it is an economically important insect yet very little is known in terms of genetic information and no genomic or transcriptomic studies have been published. Here, we use a linked‐read sequencing strategy on a single female N. tenuis. From this, we assembled the 355 Mbp genome and delivered an ab initio, homology‐based and evidence‐based annotation. Along the way, the bacterial “contamination” was removed from the assembly. In addition, bacterial lateral gene transfer (LGT) candidates were detected in the N. tenuis genome. The complete gene set is composed of 24 688 genes; the associated proteins were compared to other hemipterans (Cimex lectularis, Halyomorpha halys and Acyrthosiphon pisum). We visualized the genome using various cytogenetic techniques, such as karyotyping, CGH and GISH, indicating a karyotype of 2n = 32. Additional analyses include the localization of 18S rDNA and unique satellite probes as well as pooled sequencing to assess nucleotide diversity and neutrality of the commercial population. This is one of the first mirid genomes to be released and the first of amore »mirid biological control agent.« less
  4. Seadragons are a remarkable lineage of teleost fishes in the family Syngnathidae, renowned for having evolved male pregnancy. Comprising three known species, seadragons are widely recognized and admired for their fantastical body forms and coloration, and their specific habitat requirements have made them flagship representatives for marine conservation and natural history interests. Until recently, a gap has been the lack of significant genomic resources for seadragons. We have produced gene-annotated, chromosome-scale genome models for the leafy and weedy seadragon to advance investigations of evolutionary innovation and elaboration of morphological traits in seadragons as well as their pipefish and seahorse relatives. We identified several interesting features specific to seadragon genomes, including divergent noncoding regions near a developmental gene important for integumentary outgrowth, a high genome-wide density of repetitive DNA, and recent expansions of transposable elements and a vesicular trafficking gene family. Surprisingly, comparative analyses leveraging the seadragon genomes and additional syngnathid and outgroup genomes revealed striking, syngnathid-specific losses in the family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which likely involve reorganization of highly conserved gene regulatory networks in ways that have not previously been documented in natural populations. The resources presented here serve as important tools for future evolutionary studies of developmentalmore »processes in syngnathids and hold value for conservation of the extravagant seadragons and their relatives.« less
  5. Melzer, Rainer (Ed.)
    Abstract Duckweeds are a monophyletic group of rapidly reproducing aquatic monocots in the Lemnaceae family. Given their clonal, exponentially fast reproduction, a key question is whether genome structure is conserved across the species in the absence of meiotic recombination. Here, we studied the genome and proteome of Spirodela polyrhiza, or greater duckweed, which has the largest body plan yet the smallest genome size in the family (1C=150 Mb). Using Oxford Nanopore sequencing combined with Hi-C scaffolding, we generated a highly contiguous, chromosome-scale assembly of S. polyrhiza line Sp7498 (Sp7498_HiC). Both the Sp7498_HiC and Sp9509 genome assemblies reveal large chromosomal misorientations relative to a recent PacBio assembly of Sp7498, highlighting the need for orthogonal long-range scaffolding techniques such as Hi-C and BioNano optical mapping. Shotgun proteomics of Sp7498 verified the expression of ~2250 proteins and revealed a high abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism among other functions. In addition, a strong increase in chloroplast proteins was observed that correlated to chloroplast density. This Sp7498_HiC genome was generated cheaply and quickly with a single Oxford Nanopore MinION flow cell and one Hi-C library in a classroom setting. Combining these data with a mass spectrometry-generated proteome illustrates the utility ofmore »duckweed as a model for genomics- and proteomics-based education.« less