- Award ID(s):
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- Journal Name:
- Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) due to gestational alcohol exposure represents one of the most common causes of nonheritable lifelong disability worldwide. In vitro and in vivo models have successfully recapitulated multiple facets of the disorder, including morphological and behavioral deficits, but far less is understood regarding the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying FAS.
In this study, we utilized an in vitro human pluripotent stem cell‐based (hPSC) model of corticogenesis to probe the effects of early, chronic intermittent alcohol exposure on the transcriptome of first trimester‐equivalent cortical neurons.
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We found that a major effect of chronic intermittent alcohol on the developing cerebral cortex is an overall imbalance in regionalization, with enrichment of gene expression related to the production of posterodorsal progenitors and a diminution of anteroventral progenitors. This finding parallels behavioral and morphological phenotypes observed in animal models of high‐dose prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as patients with FAS.
The alcohol- and alkane-forming pathways in cuticular wax biosynthesis are well characterized in Arabidopsis. However, potential interactions between the two pathways remain unclear. Here, we reveal that mutation of CER4, the key gene in the alcohol-forming pathway, also led to a deficiency in the alkane-forming pathway in distal stems. To trace the connection between the two pathways, we characterized two homologs of fatty alcohol oxidase (FAO), FAO3 and FAO4b, which were highly expressed in distal stems and localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The amounts of waxes from the alkane-forming pathway were significantly decreased in stems of fao4b and much lower in fao3 fao4b plants, indicative of an overlapping function for the two proteins in wax synthesis. Additionally, overexpression of FAO3 and FAO4b in Arabidopsis resulted in a dramatic reduction of primary alcohols and significant increases of aldehydes and related waxes. Moreover, expressing FAO3 or FAO4b led to significantly decreased amounts of C18–C26 alcohols in yeast co-expressing CER4 and FAR1. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that FAO3 and FAO4b are functionally redundant in suppressing accumulation of primary alcohols and contributing to aldehyde production, which provides a missing and long-sought-after link between these two pathways in wax biosynthesis.