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Title: Photoacoustic laser streaming with non-plasmonic metal ion implantation in transparent substrates
Photoacoustic laser streaming provides a versatile technique to manipulate liquids and their suspended objects with light. However, only gold was used in the initial demonstrations. In this work, we first demonstrate that laser streaming can be achieved with common non-plasmonic metals such as Fe and W by their ion implantations in transparent substrates. We then investigate the effects of ion dose, substrate material and thickness on the strength and duration of streaming. Finally, we vary laser pulse width, repetition rate and power to understand the observed threshold power for laser streaming. It is found that substrate thickness has a negligible effect on laser streaming down to 0.1 mm, glass and quartz produce much stronger streaming than sapphire because of their smaller thermal conductivity, while quartz exhibits the longest durability than glass and sapphire under the same laser intensity. Compared with Au, Fe and W with higher melting points show a longer lifetime although they require a higher laser intensity to achieve a similar speed of streaming. To generate a continuous laser streaming, the laser must have a minimum pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and meet the minimum pulse width and energy to generate a transient vapor layer. This vapor layer more » enhances the generation of ultrasound waves, which are required for observable fluid jets. Principles of laser streaming and temperature simulation are used to explain these observations, and our study paves the way for further materials engineering and device design for strong and durable laser streaming. « less
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Optics express
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National Science Foundation
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