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Title: Beta-1,3 Oligoglucans Specifically Bind to Immune Receptor CD28 and May Enhance T Cell Activation
Beta glucans are known to have immunomodulatory effects that mediated by a variety of mechanisms. In this article, we describe experiments and simulations suggesting that beta-1,3 glucans may promote activation of T cells by a previously unknown mechanism. First, we find that treatment of a T lymphoblast cell line with beta-1,3 oligoglucan significantly increases mRNA levels of T cell activation-associated cytokines, especially in the presence of the agonistic anti-CD3 antibody. This immunostimulatory activity was observed in the absence of dectin-1, a known receptor for beta-1,3 glucans. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this activity, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations to explore the interaction of beta-1,3 oligoglucans with potential immune receptors. While the simulations reveal little association between beta-1,3 oligoglucan and the immune receptor CD3, we find that beta-1,3 oligoglucans bind to CD28 near the region identified as the binding site for its natural ligands CD80 and CD86. Using a rigorous absolute binding free-energy technique, we calculate a dissociation constant in the low millimolar range for binding of 8-mer beta-1,3 oligoglucan to this site on CD28. The simulations show this binding to be specific, as no such association is computed for alpha-1,4 oligoglucan. This study suggests that beta-1,3 glucans bind to CD28 and may stimulate T cell activation collaboratively with T cell receptor activation, thereby stimulating immune function.  more » « less
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International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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National Science Foundation
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