Surface boundaries in supercells have been suspected of being important in the arrangement and concentration of vorticity for the development and intensification of tornadoes, but there has been little attention given to the effects of the underlying surface roughness on their behavior. This study investigates the impact of surface drag on the structure and evolution of these boundaries, their associated distribution of near-surface vorticity, and tornadogenesis and maintenance. Comparisons between idealized simulations without and with drag introduced in the mature stage of the storm prior to tornadogenesis reveal that the inclusion of surface drag substantially alters the low-level structure, particularly with respect to the number, location, and intensity of surface convergence boundaries. Substantial drag-generated horizontal vorticity induces rotor structures near the surface associated with the convergence boundaries in both the forward and rear flanks of the storm. Stretching of horizontal vorticity and subsequent tilting into the vertical along the convergence boundaries lead to elongated positive vertical vorticity sheets on the ascending branch of the rotors and the opposite on the descending branch. The larger near-surface pressure deficit associated with the faster development of the near-surface cyclone when drag is active creates a downward dynamic vertical pressure gradient force that suppresses vertical growth, leading to a weaker and wider tornado detached from the surrounding convergence boundaries. A conceptual model of the low-level structure of the tornadic supercell is presented that focuses on the contribution of surface drag, with the aim of adding more insight and complexity to previous conceptual models.
Tornado development is sensitive to near-surface processes, including those associated with front-like boundaries between regions of airflow within the parent storm. However, observations and theory are insufficient to understand these phenomena, and numerical simulation remains vital. In our simulations, we find that a change in a parameter that controls how much the near-surface winds are reduced by friction (or drag) can substantially alter the storm behavior and tornado potential. We investigate how surface drag affects the low-level storm structure, the distribution of regions of near-surface rotation, and the development of tornadoes within the simulation. Our results provide insight into the role of surface drag and lead to an improved conceptual model of the near-surface structure of a tornadic storm.