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Title: A single point mutation converts a proton-pumping rhodopsin into a red-shifted, turn-on fluorescent sensor for chloride
The visualization of chloride in living cells with fluorescent sensors is linked to our ability to design hosts that can overcome the energetic penalty of desolvation to bind chloride in water. Fluorescent proteins can be used as biological supramolecular hosts to address this fundamental challenge. Here, we showcase the power of protein engineering to convert the fluorescent proton-pumping rhodopsin GR from Gloeobacter violaceus into GR1, a red-shifted, turn-on fluorescent sensor for chloride in detergent micelles and in live Escherichia coli . This non-natural function was unlocked by mutating D121, which serves as the counterion to the protonated retinylidene Schiff base chromophore. Substitution from aspartate to valine at this position (D121V) creates a binding site for chloride. The binding of chloride tunes the p K a of the chromophore towards the protonated, fluorescent state to generate a pH-dependent response. Moreover, ion pumping assays combined with bulk fluorescence and single-cell fluorescence microscopy experiments with E. coli , expressing a GR1 fusion with a cyan fluorescent protein, show that GR1 does not pump ions nor sense membrane potential but instead provides a reversible, ratiometric readout of changes in extracellular chloride at the membrane. This discovery sets the stage to use natural and laboratory-guided more » evolution to build a family of rhodopsin-based fluorescent chloride sensors with improved properties for cellular applications and learn how proteins can evolve and adapt to bind anions in water. « less
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Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
5655 to 5663
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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