- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
First synthesis of a unique icosahedral phase from the Khatyrka meteorite by shock-recovery experimentIcosahedral quasicrystals (i-phases) in the Al–Cu–Fe system are of great interest because of their perfect quasicrystalline structure and natural occurrences in the Khatyrka meteorite. The natural quasicrystal of composition Al 62 Cu 31 Fe 7 , referred to as i-phase II, is unique because it deviates significantly from the stability field of i-phase and has not been synthesized in a laboratory setting to date. Synthetic i-phases formed in shock-recovery experiments present a novel strategy for exploring the stability of new quasicrystal compositions and prove the impact origin of natural quasicrystals. In this study, an Al–Cu–W graded density impactor (GDI, originally manufactured as a ramp-generating impactor but here used as a target) disk was shocked to sample a full range of Al/Cu starting ratios in an Fe-bearing 304 stainless-steel target chamber. In a strongly deformed region of the recovered sample, reactions between the GDI and the steel produced an assemblage of co-existing Al 61.5 Cu 30.3 Fe 6.8 Cr 1.4 i-phase II + stolperite (β, AlCu) + khatyrkite (θ, Al 2 Cu), an exact match to the natural i-phase II assemblage in the meteorite. In a second experiment, the continuous interface between the GDI and steel formed another more Fe-rich quinary i-phasemore »
Hydrogen and Silicon Effects on Hexagonal Close Packed Fe Alloys at High Pressures: Implications for the Composition of Earth's Inner Core
Hexagonal close‐packed (hcp) structured Fe‐Ni alloy is believed to be the dominant phase in the Earth's inner core. This phase is expected to contain 4%–5% light elements, such as Si and H. While the effects of individual light element candidates on the equation of state (EoS) of the hcp Fe metal have been studied, their combined effects remain largely unexplored. In this study, we report the equations of state for two hcp‐structured Fe‐Si‐H alloys, namely Fe0.83Si0.17H0.07and Fe0.83Si0.17H0.46, using synchrotron X‐ray diffraction measurements up to 125 GPa at 300 K. These alloys were synthesized by cold compression of Fe‐9wt%Si in either pure H2or Ar‐H2mixture medium in diamond‐anvil cells. The volume increase caused by a H atom in hcp Fe‐Si‐H alloys is approximately eight times greater than that by a Si atom. We used the improved data set to develop a composition‐dependent EoS that covers a wide range of compositions. Our calculated density and bulk sound velocity of hcp Fe‐Si‐H alloys suggest a large trade‐off between Si and H contents in fitting the seismic properties of the inner core. Combining our new EoS with geophysical and geochemical constraints, we propose 1.6–3 wt% Si and 0.15–0.6 wt% H in the Earth's inner core.
An in situ study of presolar grains and the fine‐grained matrices of the Meteorite Hills 00526 and Queen Alexandra Range 97008 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites
Here we report in situ structural and chemical analyses of four presolar grains and the matrices of the Meteorite Hills (MET) 00526 L3.05 and Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 97008 L3.05 unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). The presolar grains in MET 00526 include one Fe‐rich single crystal olivine, and one olivine grain that contains both amorphous and polycrystalline material. The single crystal olivine likely has origins in the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of a red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, and the amorphous/polycrystalline olivine has an O‐isotopic composition consistent with origins in a type II supernova. The presolar grains from QUE 97008 are Fe rich and include one crystalline, stoichiometric olivine that contains a Ca‐rich core and one crystalline, stoichiometric pyroxene grain, both of which have O‐isotopic compositions consistent with origins in the CSEs of low‐mass AGB/RGB stars. The matrices of both UOCs are mineralogically diverse with evidence for unaltered material in the form of amorphous silicates and a C‐rich nanoglobule and altered material in the form of Ni‐rich sulfides, abundant Fe‐rich olivine, and Fe‐Mg zoning in matrix silicates. No phyllosilicates were observed. The Fe‐rich olivine grains are the dominant alteration phase in both UOCs and likely replacedmore »
We report the discovery of Al34Ni9Fe2, the first natural known periodic crystalline approximant to decagonite (Al71Ni24Fe5), a natural quasicrystal composed of a periodic stack of planes with quasiperiodic atomic order and ten-fold symmetry. The new mineral has been approved by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA 2018-038) and officially named proxidecagonite, which derives from its identity to periodic approximant of decagonite. Both decagonite and proxidecagonite were found in fragments from the Khatyrka meteorite. Proxidecagonite is the first natural quasicrystal approximant to be found in the Al-Ni-Fe system. Within this system, the decagonal quasicrystal phase has been reported to transform at ~940 °C to Al13(Fe,Ni)4, Al3(Fe,Ni)2and the liquid phase, and between 800 and 850 °C to Al13(Fe,Ni)4, Al3(Fe,Ni) and Al3(Fe,Ni)2. The fact that proxidecagonite has not been observed in the laboratory before and formed in a meteorite exposed to high pressures and temperatures during impact-induced shocks suggests that it might be a thermodynamically stable compound at high pressure. The most prominent structural motifs are pseudo-pentagonal symmetry subunits, such as pentagonal bipyramids, that share edges and corners with trigonal bipyramids and which maximize shortest Ni–Al over Ni–Ni contacts.
Regional and Local Stratigraphic Markers in Three Hudson River Cores Taken Near Peekskill, New York: Core LWB 4-5We have been studying the stratigraphy of core LWB 4-5 taken in 2001 in the Hudson River 1.5 km north of the transit of the Peekskill meteorite in October 1992. We measured magnetic susceptibility and elemental composition at 1 cm intervals down to 50 cm and then at 5 cm intervals down to 108 cm. Magnetic susceptibilities are unusually high (above 20 cgs units) from 12-19 cm and again at 31 cm. The level at 31 cm contains mm-sized fragments of Fe oxide. X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed high Ni/Cr levels concentrated from 9-11 cm and again below 97 cm. We found tektite-like spheroids, dumbbells and teardrops from 8-15 cm depth. They are glasses and they contain appreciable K, consistent with an origin as true tektites but we have not identified the source. Overall, we interpret the high susceptibility, high Ni/Cr and possibly tektite bearing layer as a resulting from the fall of one of the bodies postulated to have fallen with the Peekskill meteorite in 1992. A 1992 age for the top of the Peekskill layer at 8-9 cm depth is consistent with a uniform sedimentation rate in the core and the occurrence of the base of modern Pb atmore »