skip to main content


Title: Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanolayered Carbon Films
In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and Raman spectrum analysis. The analyses show that the PE-ALD-grown carbon film has an amorphous structure. It was found that the existence of defective sites (nanoscale holes or cracks) on the substrate of copper foil could facilitate the formation of nanolayered carbon films. The mechanism for the formation of nanolayered carbon film in the nanoscale holes was discussed. This finding could be used for the controlled growth of nanolayered carbon films or other two-dimensional nanomaterials while combining with modern nanopatterning techniques.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1740687
NSF-PAR ID:
10303223
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
C
Volume:
7
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2311-5629
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We report the growth of nanoscale hafnium dioxide (HfO2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thin films using remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD), and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Tetrakis (dimethylamino) hafnium (Hf[N(CH3)2]4) and tetrakis (dimethylamino) zirconium (IV) (Zr[N(CH3)2]4) were used as the precursors, while O2 gas was used as the reactive gas. The PE-ALD-grown HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XPS measurements show that the ZrO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 34% Zr, 2% C, and 64% O while the HfO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 29% Hf, 11% C, and 60% O. The HRTEM and XRD measurements show both HfO2 and ZrO2 films have polycrystalline structures. n-channel and p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (nFETs and pFETs), CMOS inverters, and CMOS ring oscillators were fabricated to test the quality of the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Current-voltage (IV) curves, transfer characteristics, and oscillation waveforms were measured from the fabricated transistors, inverters, and oscillators, respectively. The experimental results measured from the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were compared. 
    more » « less
  2. Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were grown on a nanohole-patterned silicon substrate using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. A nanoscale hole-patterned silicon substrate was fabricated for the growth of MoS2 film using the self-assembly-based nanofabrication method. The nanoscale holes can significantly increase the surface area of the substrate while the formation and growth of nanostructures normally start at the surface of the substrate. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas was used as the S source in the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) while molybdenum (V) chloride (MoCl5) powder was used as the Mo source. The MoS2 film had a stoichiometric ratio of 1 (Mo) to 2 (S), and had peaks of E12g and A1g, which represent the in-plane and out-plane vibration modes of the Mo–S bond, respectively. It was found that the MoS2 film grown in the nanoscale hole, especially at the wall of the hole, has more hexagonal-like structures due to the effects of nanoscale space confinement and the nanoscale interface although the film shows an amorphous structure. Post-growth high-temperature annealing ranging from 800 to 900 °C produced local crystalline structures in the film, which are compatible with those reported by other researchers. 
    more » « less
  3. Nanoscale spinel lithium manganese oxide is of interest as a high‐rate cathode material for advanced battery technologies among other electrochemical applications. In this work, the synthesis of ultrathin films of spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) between 20 and 200 nm in thickness by room‐temperature electrochemical conversion of MnO grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. The charge storage properties of LiMn2O4thin films in electrolytes containing Li+, Na+, K+, and Mg2+are investigated. A unified electrochemical band‐diagram (UEB) analysis of LiMn2O4informed by screened hybrid density functional theory calculations is also employed to expand on existing understanding of the underpinnings of charge storage and stability in LiMn2O4. It is shown that the incorporation of Li+or other cations into the host manganese dioxide spinel structure (λ‐MnO2) stabilizes electronic states from the conduction band which align with the known redox potentials of LiMn2O4. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrate that up to 30% of the capacity of LiMn2O4arises from bulk electronic charge‐switching which does not require compensating cation mass transport. The hybrid ALD‐electrochemical synthesis, UEB analysis, and unique charge storage mechanism described here provide a fundamental framework to guide the development of future nanoscale electrode materials for ion‐incorporation charge storage.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract We demonstrate a bottom-up process for programming the deposition of coaxial thin films aligned to the underlying dopant profile of semiconductor nanowires. Our process synergistically combines three distinct methods—vapor–liquid–solid nanowire growth, selective coaxial lithography via etching of surfaces (SCALES), and area-selective atomic layer deposition (AS-ALD)—into a cohesive whole. Here, we study ZrO 2 on Si nanowires as a model system. Si nanowires are first grown with an axially modulated n-Si/i-Si dopant profile. SCALES then yields coaxial poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) masks on the n-Si regions. Subsequent AS-ALD of ZrO 2 occurs on the exposed i-Si regions and not on those masked by PMMA. We show the spatial relationship between nanowire dopant profile, PMMA masks, and ZrO 2 films, confirming the programmability of the process. The nanoscale resolution of our process coupled with the plethora of available AS-ALD chemistries promises a range of future opportunities to generate structurally complex nanoscale materials and electronic devices using entirely bottom-up methods. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The practical implementation of Li metal batteries is hindered by difficulties in controlling the Li metal plating microstructure. While previous atomic layer deposition (ALD) studies have focused on directly coating Li metal with thin films for the passivation of the electrode–electrolyte interface, a different approach is adopted, situating the ALD film beneath Li metal and directly on the copper current collector. A mechanistic explanation for this simple strategy of controlling the Li metal plating microstructure using TiO2grown on copper foil by ALD is presented. In contrast to previous studies where ALD‐grown layers act as artificial interphases, this TiO2layer resides at the copper–Li metal interface, acting as a nucleation layer to improve the Li metal plating morphology. Upon lithiation of TiO2, a LixTiO2complex forms; this alloy provides a lithiophilic surface layer that enables uniform and reversible Li plating. The reversibility of lithium deposition is evident from the champion cell (5 nm TiO2), which displays an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 96% after 150 cycles at a moderate current density of 1 mA cm−2. This simple approach provides the first account of the mechanism of ALD‐derived Li nucleation control and suggests new possibilities for future ALD‐synthesized nucleation layers.

     
    more » « less