This paper presents a new optical imaging survey of four deep drilling fields (DDFs), two Galactic and two extragalactic, with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4-m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). During the first year of observations in 2021, >4000 images covering 21 deg2 (seven DECam pointings), with ∼40 epochs (nights) per field and 5 to 6 images per night per filter in g, r, i, and/or z have become publicly available (the proprietary period for this program is waived). We describe the real-time difference-image pipeline and how alerts are distributed to brokers via the same distribution system as the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). In this paper, we focus on the two extragalactic deep fields (COSMOS and ELAIS-S1) characterizing the detected sources, and demonstrating that the survey design is effective for probing the discovery space of faint and fast variable and transient sources. We describe and make publicly available 4413 calibrated light curves based on difference-image detection photometry of transients and variables in the extragalactic fields. We also present preliminary scientific analysis regarding the Solar system small bodies, stellar flares and variables, Galactic anomaly detection, fast-rising transients and variables, supernovae, and active Galactic nuclei.
The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), a public–private enterprise, is a new time-domain survey employing a dedicated camera on the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope with a 47 deg2field of view and an 8 second readout time. It is well positioned in the development of time-domain astronomy, offering operations at 10% of the scale and style of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) with a single 1-m class survey telescope. The public surveys will cover the observable northern sky every three nights in
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- Publisher / Repository:
- IOP Publishing
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- Journal Name:
- Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific
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- Article No. 078001
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Microlensing events have historically been discovered throughout the Galactic bulge and plane by surveys designed solely for that purpose. We conduct the first multiyear search for microlensing events on the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), an all-sky optical synoptic survey that observes the entire visible northern sky every few nights. We discover 60 high-quality microlensing events in the 3 yr of ZTF-I using the bulk lightcurves in the ZTF Public Data Release 5.19 of our events are found outside of the Galactic plane (∣
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Aims. We present a variability-, color-, and morphology-based classifier designed to identify multiple classes of transients and persistently variable and non-variable sources from the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) Data Release 11 (DR11) light curves of extended and point sources. The main motivation to develop this model was to identify active galactic nuclei (AGN) at different redshift ranges to be observed by the 4MOST Chilean AGN/Galaxy Evolution Survey (ChANGES). That being said, it also serves as a more general time-domain astronomy study. Methods. The model uses nine colors computed from CatWISE and Pan-STARRS1 (PS1), a morphology score from PS1, and 61 single-band variability features computed from the ZTF DR11 g and r light curves. We trained two versions of the model, one for each ZTF band, since ZTF DR11 treats the light curves observed in a particular combination of field, filter, and charge-coupled device (CCD) quadrant independently. We used a hierarchical local classifier per parent node approach-where each node is composed of a balanced random forest model. We adopted a taxonomy with 17 classes: non-variable stars, non-variable galaxies, three transients (SNIa, SN-other, and CV/Nova), five classes of stochastic variables (lowz-AGN, midz-AGN, highz-AGN, Blazar, and YSO), and seven classes of periodic variables (LPV, EA, EB/EW, DSCT, RRL, CEP, and Periodic-other). Results. The macro-averaged precision, recall, and F1-score are 0.61, 0.75, and 0.62 for the g -band model, and 0.60, 0.74, and 0.61, for the r -band model. When grouping the four AGN classes (lowz-AGN, midz-AGN, highz-AGN, and Blazar) into one single class, its precision-recall, and F1-score are 1.00, 0.95, and 0.97, respectively, for both the g and r bands. This demonstrates the good performance of the model in classifying AGN candidates. We applied the model to all the sources in the ZTF/4MOST overlapping sky (−28 ≤ Dec ≤ 8.5), avoiding ZTF fields that cover the Galactic bulge (| gal_b | ≤ 9 and gal_l ≤ 50). This area includes 86 576 577 light curves in the g band and 140 409 824 in the r band with 20 or more observations and with an average magnitude in the corresponding band lower than 20.5. Only 0.73% of the g -band light curves and 2.62% of the r -band light curves were classified as stochastic, periodic, or transient with high probability ( P init ≥ 0.9). Even though the metrics obtained for the two models are similar, we find that, in general, more reliable results are obtained when using the g -band model. With it, we identified 384 242 AGN candidates (including low-, mid-, and high-redshift AGN and Blazars), 287 156 of which have P init ≥ 0.9.more » « less
Context. Recent developments in time domain astronomy, such as Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), have made it possible to conduct daily scans of the entire visible sky, leading to the discovery of hundreds of new transients every night. Among these detections, 10 to 15 of these objects are supernovae (SNe), which have to be classified prior to cosmological use. The spectral energy distribution machine (SEDM) is a low-resolution ( ℛ ~ 100) integral field spectrograph designed, built, and operated with the aim of spectroscopically observing and classifying targets detected by the ZTF main camera. Aims. As the current pysedm pipeline can only handle isolated point sources, it is limited by contamination when the transient is too close to its host galaxy core. This can lead to an incorrect typing and ultimately bias the cosmological analyses, affecting the homogeneity of the SN sample in terms of local environment properties. We present a new scene modeler to extract the transient spectrum from its structured background, with the aim of improving the typing efficiency of the SEDM. Methods. H yper G al is a fully chromatic scene modeler that uses archival pre-transient photometric images of the SN environment to generate a hyperspectral model of the host galaxy. It is based on the cigale SED fitter used as a physically-motivated spectral interpolator. The galaxy model, complemented by a point source for the transient and a diffuse background component, is projected onto the SEDM spectro-spatial observation space and adjusted to observations, and the SN spectrum is ultimately extracted from this multi-component model. The full procedure, from scene modeling to transient spectrum extraction and typing, is validated on 5000 simulated cubes built from actual SEDM observations of isolated host galaxies, covering a broad range of observing conditions and scene parameters. Results. We introduce the contrast, c , as the transient-to-total flux ratio at the SN location, integrated over the ZTF r -band. From estimated contrast distribution of real SEDm observations, we show that H yper G al correctly classifies ~95% of SNe Ia, and up to 99% for contrast c ≳ 0.2, representing more than 90% of the observations. Compared to the standard point-source extraction method (without the hyperspectral galaxy modeling step), H yper G al correctly classifies 20% more SNe Ia between 0.1 < c < 0.6 (50% of the observation conditions), with less than 5% of SN Ia misidentifications. The false-positive rate is less than 2% for c > 0.1 (> 99% of the observations), which represents half as much as the standard extraction method. Assuming a similar contrast distribution for core-collapse SNe, H yper G al classifies 14% additional SNe II and 11% additional SNe Ibc. Conclusions. H yper G al has proven to be extremely effective in extracting and classifying SNe in the presence of strong contamination by the host galaxy, providing a significant improvement with respect to the single point-source extraction.more » « less