skip to main content

Title: Precise assembly and joining of silver nanowires in three dimensions for highly conductive composite structures
Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) electrically conductive micro/nanostructures are now a key component in a broad range of research and industry fields. In this work, a novel method is developed to realize metallic 3D micro/nanostructures with silver-thiol-acrylate composites via two-photon polymerization followed by femtosecond laser nanojoining. Complex 3D micro/nanoscale conductive structures have been successfully fabricated with ∼200 nm resolution. The loading of silver nanowires (AgNWs) and joining of junctions successfully enhance the electrical conductivity of the composites from insulating to 92.9 S m−1at room temperature. Moreover, for the first time, a reversible switching to a higher conductivity is observed, up to ∼105S m−1at 523 K. The temperature-dependent conductivity of the composite is analyzed following the variable range hopping and thermal activation models. The nanomaterial assembly and joining method demonstrated in this study pave a way towards a wide range of device applications, including 3D electronics, sensors, memristors, micro/nanoelectromechanical systems, and biomedical devices, etc.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10308337
Journal Name:
International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing
Volume:
1
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 025001
ISSN:
2631-8644
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Covalent adaptable network (CAN) polymers doped with conductive nanoparticles are an ideal candidate to create reshapeable, rehealable, and fully recyclable electronics. On the other hand, 3D printing as a deterministic manufacturing method has a significant potential to fabricate electronics with low cost and high design freedom. In this paper, we incorporate a conductive composite consisting of polyimine CAN and multi-wall carbon nanotubes into direct-ink-writing 3D printing to create polymeric sensors with outstanding reshaping, repairing, and recycling capabilities. The developed printable ink exhibits good printability, conductivity, and recyclability. The conductivity of printed polyimine composites is investigated at different temperatures and deformation strain levels. Their shape-reforming and Joule heating-induced interfacial welding effects are demonstrated and characterized. Finally, a temperature sensor is 3D printed with defined patterns of conductive pathways, which can be easily mounted onto 3D surfaces, repaired after damage, and recycled using solvents. The sensing capability of printed sensors is maintained after the repairing and recycling. Overall, the 3D printed reshapeable, rehealable, and recyclable sensors possess complex geometry and extend service life, which assist in the development of polymer-based electronics toward broad and sustainable applications.

  2. Abstract

    The emergence of wearable electronics puts batteries closer to the human skin, exacerbating the need for battery materials that are robust, highly ionically conductive, and stretchable. Herein, we introduce a supramolecular design as an effective strategy to overcome the canonical tradeoff between mechanical robustness and ionic conductivity in polymer electrolytes. The supramolecular lithium ion conductor utilizes orthogonally functional H-bonding domains and ion-conducting domains to create a polymer electrolyte with unprecedented toughness (29.3 MJ m−3) and high ionic conductivity (1.2 × 10−4S cm−1at 25 °C). Implementation of the supramolecular ion conductor as a binder material allows for the creation of stretchable lithium-ion battery electrodes with strain capability of over 900% via a conventional slurry process. The supramolecular nature of these battery components enables intimate bonding at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Combination of these stretchable components leads to a stretchable battery with a capacity of 1.1 mAh cm−2that functions even when stretched to 70% strain. The method reported here of decoupling ionic conductivity from mechanical properties opens a promising route to create high-toughness ion transport materials for energy storage applications.

  3. Abstract

    An emerging chalcogenide perovskite, CaZrSe3, holds promise for energy conversion applications given its notable optical and electrical properties. However, knowledge of its thermal properties is extremely important, e.g. for potential thermoelectric applications, and has not been previously reported in detail. In this work, we examine and explain the lattice thermal transport mechanisms in CaZrSe3using density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations. We find the mean relaxation time to be extremely short corroborating an enhanced phonon–phonon scattering that annihilates phonon modes, and lowers thermal conductivity. In addition, strong anharmonicity in the perovskite crystal represented by the Grüneisen parameter predictions, and low phonon number density for the acoustic modes, results in the lattice thermal conductivity to be limited to 1.17 W m−1 K−1. The average phonon mean free path in the bulk CaZrSe3sample (N → ∞) is 138.1 nm and nanostructuring CaZrSe3sample to ~10 nm diminishes the thermal conductivity to 0.23 W m−1 K−1. We also find that p-type doping yields higher predictions of thermoelectric figure of merit than n-type doping, and values ofZT~0.95–1 are found for hole concentrations in the range 1016–1017 cm−3and temperature between 600 and 700 K.

  4. Abstract

    Hydrogen, the smallest and most abundant element in nature, can be efficiently incorporated within a solid and drastically modify its electronic and structural state. In most semiconductors interstitial hydrogen binds to defects and is known to be amphoteric, namely it can act either as a donor (H+) or an acceptor (H) of charge, nearly always counteracting the prevailing conductivity type. Here we demonstrate that hydrogenation resolves an outstanding challenge in chalcogenide classes of three-dimensional (3D) topological insulators and magnets — the control of intrinsic bulk conduction that denies access to quantum surface transport, imposing severe thickness limits on the bulk. With electrons donated by a reversible binding of H+ions to Te(Se) chalcogens, carrier densities are reduced by over 1020cm−3, allowing tuning the Fermi level into the bulk bandgap to enter surface/edge current channels without altering carrier mobility or the bandstructure. The hydrogen-tuned topological nanostructures are stable at room temperature and tunable disregarding bulk size, opening a breadth of device platforms for harnessing emergent topological states.

  5. Abstract

    The discovery and development of ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) semiconductors is crucial to accelerate the adoption of renewable power sources. This necessitates an UWBG semiconductor that exhibits robust doping with high carrier mobility over a wide range of carrier concentrations. Here we demonstrate that epitaxial thin films of the perovskite oxide NdxSr1xSnO3(SSO) do exactly this. Nd is used as a donor to successfully modulate the carrier concentration over nearly two orders of magnitude, from 3.7 × 1018 cm−3to 2.0 × 1020 cm−3. Despite being grown on lattice-mismatched substrates and thus having relatively high structural disorder, SSO films exhibited the highest room-temperature mobility, ~70 cm2 V−1 s−1, among all known UWBG semiconductors in the range of carrier concentrations studied. The phonon-limited mobility is calculated from first principles and supplemented with a model to treat ionized impurity and Kondo scattering. This produces excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of temperatures and carrier concentrations, and predicts the room-temperature phonon-limited mobility to be 76–99 cm2 V−1 s−1depending on carrier concentration. This work establishes a perovskite oxide as an emerging UWBG semiconductor candidate with potential for applications in power electronics.