skip to main content

Title: Dynamic Neuro-Symbolic Knowledge Graph Construction for Zero-shot Commonsense Question Answering
Understanding narratives requires reasoning about implicit world knowledge related to the causes, effects, and states of situations described in text. At the core of this challenge is how to access contextually relevant knowledge on demand and reason over it. In this paper, we present initial studies toward zero-shot commonsense question answering by formulating the task as inference over dynamically generated commonsense knowledge graphs. In contrast to previous studies for knowledge integration that rely on retrieval of existing knowledge from static knowledge graphs, our study requires commonsense knowledge integration where contextually relevant knowledge is often not present in existing knowledge bases. Therefore, we present a novel approach that generates contextually-relevant symbolic knowledge structures on demand using generative neural commonsense knowledge models. Empirical results on two datasets demonstrate the efficacy of our neuro-symbolic approach for dynamically constructing knowledge graphs for reasoning. Our approach achieves significant performance boosts over pretrained language models and vanilla knowledge models, all while providing interpretable reasoning paths for its predictions.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Thirty-Fifth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Exploiting relationships between objects for image and video captioning has received increasing attention. Most existing methods depend heavily on pre-trained detectors of objects and their relationships, and thus may not work well when facing detection challenges such as heavy occlusion, tiny-size objects, and long-tail classes. In this paper, we propose a joint commonsense and relation reasoning method that exploits prior knowledge for image and video captioning without relying on any detectors. The prior knowledge provides semantic correlations and constraints between objects, serving as guidance to build semantic graphs that summarize object relationships, some of which cannot be directly perceived from images or videos. Particularly, our method is implemented by an iterative learning algorithm that alternates between 1) commonsense reasoning for embedding visual regions into the semantic space to build a semantic graph and 2) relation reasoning for encoding semantic graphs to generate sentences. Experiments on several benchmark datasets validate the effectiveness of our prior knowledge-based approach. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract To be responsive to dynamically changing real-world environments, an intelligent agent needs to perform complex sequential decision-making tasks that are often guided by commonsense knowledge. The previous work on this line of research led to the framework called interleaved commonsense reasoning and probabilistic planning (i corpp ), which used P-log for representing commmonsense knowledge and Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) or Partially Observable MDPs (POMDPs) for planning under uncertainty. A main limitation of i corpp is that its implementation requires non-trivial engineering efforts to bridge the commonsense reasoning and probabilistic planning formalisms. In this paper, we present a unified framework to integrate i corpp ’s reasoning and planning components. In particular, we extend probabilistic action language pBC + to express utility, belief states, and observation as in POMDP models. Inheriting the advantages of action languages, the new action language provides an elaboration tolerant representation of POMDP that reflects commonsense knowledge. The idea led to the design of the system pbcplus2pomdp , which compiles a pBC + action description into a POMDP model that can be directly processed by off-the-shelf POMDP solvers to compute an optimal policy of the pBC + action description. Our experiments show that it retains the advantages of i corpp while avoiding the manual efforts in bridging the commonsense reasoner and the probabilistic planner. 
    more » « less
  3. Despite the significant advancements in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP), Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown limitations in performing complex tasks that require arithmetic, commonsense, and symbolic reasoning. Reasoning frameworks like ReAct, Chain-of-thought (CoT), Tree-of-thoughts (ToT), etc. have shown success but with limitations in solving long-form complex tasks. To address this, we propose a knowledge-sharing and collaborative multi-agent assisted framework on LLMs that leverages the capabilities of existing reasoning frameworks and the collaborative skills of multi-agent systems (MASs). The objectives of the proposed framework are to overcome the limitations of LLMs, enhance their reasoning capabilities, and improve their performance in complex tasks. It involves generating natural language rationales and in-context few-shot learning via prompting, and integrates the reasoning techniques with efficient knowledge-sharing and communication driven agent networks. The potential benefits of the proposed framework include saving time and money, improved efficiency for computationally intensive reasoning, and the ability to incorporate multiple collaboration strategies for dynamically changing environments. 
    more » « less
  4. Answering complex questions about textual narratives requires reasoning over both stated context and the world knowledge that underlies it. However, pretrained language models (LM), the foundation of most modern QA systems, do not robustly represent latent relationships between concepts, which is necessary for reasoning. While knowledge graphs (KG) are often used to augment LMs with structured representations of world knowledge, it remains an open question how to effectively fuse and reason over the KG representations and the language context, which provides situational constraints and nuances. In this work, we propose GreaseLM, a new model that fuses encoded representations from pretrained LMs and graph neural networks over multiple layers of modality interaction operations. Information from both modalities propagates to the other, allowing language context representations to be grounded by structured world knowledge, and allowing linguistic nuances (e.g., negation, hedging) in the context to inform the graph representations of knowledge. Our results on three benchmarks in the commonsense reasoning (i.e., CommonsenseQA, OpenbookQA) and medical question answering (i.e., MedQA-USMLE) domains demonstrate that GreaseLM can more reliably answer questions that require reasoning over both situational constraints and structured knowledge, even outperforming models 8x larger. 
    more » « less
  5. Harnessing commonsense knowledge poses a significant challenge for machine comprehension systems. This paper primarily focuses on incorporating a specific subset of commonsense knowledge, namely, script knowledge. Script knowledge is about sequences of actions that are typically performed by individuals in everyday life. Our experiments were centered around the MCScript dataset, which was the basis of the SemEval-2018 Task 11: Machine Comprehension using Commonsense Knowledge. As a baseline, we utilized our Three-Way Attentive Networks (TriANs) framework to model the interactions among passages, questions, and answers. Building upon the TriAN, we proposed to: (1) integrate a pre-trained language model to capture script knowledge; (2) introduce multi-layer attention to facilitate multi-hop reasoning; and (3) incorporate positional embeddings to enhance the model’s capacity for event-ordering reasoning. In this paper, we present our proposed methods and prove their efficacy in improving script knowledge integration and reasoning.

    more » « less