skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on January 3, 2023

Title: A Hybrid Bulk Algorithm to Predict Turbulent Fluxes over Dry and Wet Bare Soils
Abstract Measurements made in the Columbia River Basin (Oregon) in an area of irregular terrain during the second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP 2) field campaign are used to develop an optimized hybrid bulk algorithm to predict the surface turbulent fluxes from readily measured or modelled quantities over dry and wet bare or lightly vegetated soil surfaces. The hybrid (synthetic) algorithm combines (i) an aerodynamic method for turbulent flow which is based on the transfer coefficients (drag coefficient and Stanton number), roughness lengths, and Monin-Obukhov similarity and (ii) a modified Priestley-Taylor (P-T) algorithm with physically based ecophysiological constraints which is essentially based on the surface energy budget (SEB) equation. Soil heat flux in the latter case was estimated from measurements of soil temperature and soil moisture. In the framework of the hybrid algorithm, bulk estimates of the momentum flux and the sensible heat flux are derived from a traditional aerodynamic approach, whereas the latent heat flux (or moisture flux) is evaluated from a modified P-T model. Direct measurements of the surface fluxes (turbulent and radiative) and other ancillary atmospheric/soil parameters made during WFIP 2 for different soil conditions (dry and wet) are used to optimize and tune the hybrid bulk more » algorithm. The bulk flux estimates are validated against the measured eddy-covariance fluxes. We also discuss the SEB closure over dry and wet surfaces at various timescales based on the modelled and measured fluxes. Although this bulk flux algorithm is optimized for the data collected during the WFIP 2, a hybrid approach can be used for similar flux-tower sites and field campaigns. « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract. Plant activity in semi-arid ecosystems is largely controlled by pulses of precipitation, making them particularly vulnerable to increased aridity expected with climate change. Simple bucket-model hydrology schemes in land surface models (LSMs) have had limited ability in accurately capturing semi-arid water stores and fluxes. Recent, more complex, LSM hydrology models have not been widely evaluated against semi-arid ecosystem in situ data. We hypothesize that the failure of older LSM versions to represent evapotranspiration, ET, in arid lands is because simple bucket models do not capture realistic fluctuations in upper layer soil moisture. We therefore predict that including a discretized soil hydrology scheme based on a mechanistic description of moisture diffusion will result in an improvement in model ET when compared to data because the temporal variability of upper layer soil moisture content better corresponds to that of precipitation inputs. To test this prediction, we compared ORCHIDEE LSM simulations from (1) a simple conceptual 2-layer bucket scheme with fixed hydrological parameters; and (2) a 11-layer discretized mechanistic scheme of moisture diffusion in unsaturated soil based on Richards equations against daily and monthly soil moisture and ET observations, together with data-derived transpiration / evaporation, T / ET, ratios, from six semi-arid grass, shrub and forestmore »sites in the southwestern USA. The 11-layer scheme also has modified calculations of surface runoff, bare soil evaporation, and water limitation to be compatible with the more complex hydrology configuration. To diagnose remaining discrepancies in the 11-layer model, we tested two further configurations: (i) the addition of a term that captures bare soil evaporation resistance to dry soil; and (ii) reduced bare soil fraction. We found that the more mechanistic 11-layer model results better representation of the daily and monthly ET observations. We show that is likely because of improved simulation of soil moisture in the upper layers of soil (top 5 cm). Some discrepancies between observed and modelled soil moisture and ET may allow us to prioritize future model development. Adding a soil resistance term generally decreased simulated E and increased soil moisture content, thus increasing T and T / ET ratios and reducing the negative T / ET model-data bias. By reducing the bare soil fraction in the model, we illustrated that modelled leaf T is too low at sparsely vegetated sites. We conclude that a discretized soil hydrology scheme and associated developments improves estimates of ET by allowing the model to more closely match the pulse precipitation dynamics of these semi-arid ecosystems; however, the partitioning of T from bare soil evaporation is not solved by this modification alone.« less
  2. Abstract
    Excessive phosphorus (P) applications to croplands can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters through surface runoff and subsurface (leaching) losses. We analyzed leaching losses of total dissolved P (TDP) from no-till corn, hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), native grasses, and restored prairie, all planted in 2008 on former cropland in Michigan, USA. All crops except corn (13 kg P ha−1 year−1) were grown without P fertilization. Biomass was harvested at the end of each growing season except for poplar. Soil water at 1.2 m depth was sampled weekly to biweekly for TDP determination during March–November 2009–2016 using tension lysimeters. Soil test P (0–25 cm depth) was measured every autumn. Soil water TDP concentrations were usually below levels where eutrophication of surface waters is frequently observed (> 0.02 mg L−1) but often higher than in deep groundwater or nearby streams and lakes. Rates of P leaching, estimated from measured concentrations and modeled drainage, did not differ statistically among cropping systems across years; 7-year cropping system means ranged from 0.035 to 0.072 kg P ha−1 year−1 with large interannual variation. Leached P was positively related to STP, which decreased over the 7 years in all systems. These results indicate that both P-fertilized and unfertilized cropping systems mayMore>>
  3. Climate models show that soil moisture and its subseasonal fluctuations have important impacts on the surface latent heat flux, thus regulating surface temperature variations. Using correlations between monthly anomalies in net absorbed radiative fluxes, precipitation, 2-m air temperature, and soil moisture in the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the HadCM3 climate model, we develop a linear diagnostic model to quantify the major effects of land–atmosphere interactions on summertime surface temperature variability. The spatial patterns in 2-m air temperature and soil moisture variance from the diagnostic model are consistent with those from the products from which it was derived, although the diagnostic model generally underpredicts soil moisture variance. We use the diagnostic model to quantify the impact of soil moisture, shortwave radiation, and precipitation anomalies on temperature variance in wet and dry regions. Consistent with other studies, we find that fluctuations in soil moisture amplify temperature variance in dry regions through their impact on latent heat flux, whereas in wet regions temperature variability is muted because of high mean evapotranspiration rates afforded by plentiful surface soil moisture. We demonstrate how the diagnostic model can be used to identify sources of temperature variance bias in climate models.

  4. Abstract Among quantities of interest in paleoclimate, the mean annual air temperature, Ta, directly over the surface looms prominently. Most geologic estimates of past temperatures from continental regions, however, quantify temperatures of the soil or other material below the surface, Ts, and in general Ta < Ts. Both theory and data from the FLUXNET2015 data set of surface energy balance indicate systematic dependences of temperature differences ΔT = Ts − Ta and also of Bowen ratios—ratios of sensible to latent heat fluxes from surface to the atmosphere—on the nature of the land-surface cover. In cold regions, with mean annual temperatures ≲5 °C, latent heat flux tends to be small, and values of ΔT can be large, 3–5 °C or larger. Over wet surfaces, latent heat fluxes dominate sensible heat fluxes, and values of both ΔT and Bowen ratios commonly are small. By contrast, over arid surfaces that provide only limited moisture to the overlying atmosphere, the opposite holds. Both theory and observation suggest the following, albeit approximate, mean annual values of ΔT: for wetlands, 1 °C; forests, 1 ± 1 °C; shrublands, 3–4 °C; savannas, 3.5 °C < ΔT < 5.5 °C; grasslands, 1 °C where wet to 3 °Cmore »where arid; and deserts, 4–6 °C. As geological tools for inferring past land-surface conditions improve, these approximate values of ΔT will allow geologic estimates of past mean annual surface temperatures, Ts, to be translated into estimates of past mean annual air temperatures, Ta.« less
  5. Abstract Sea-to-air heat fluxes are the energy source for tropical cyclone (TC) development and maintenance. In the bulk aerodynamic formulas, these fluxes are a function of surface wind speed U 10 and air–sea temperature and moisture disequilibrium (Δ T and Δ q , respectively). Although many studies have explained TC intensification through the mutual dependence between increasing U 10 and increasing sea-to-air heat fluxes, recent studies have found that TC intensification can occur through deep convective vortex structures that obtain their local buoyancy from sea-to-air moisture fluxes, even under conditions of relatively low wind. Herein, a new perspective on the bulk aerodynamic formulas is introduced to evaluate the relative contribution of wind-driven ( U 10 ) and thermodynamically driven (Δ T and Δ q ) ocean heat uptake. Previously unnoticed salient properties of these formulas, reported here, are as follows: 1) these functions are hyperbolic and 2) increasing Δ q is an efficient mechanism for enhancing the fluxes. This new perspective was used to investigate surface heat fluxes in six TCs during phases of steady-state intensity (SS), slow intensification (SI), and rapid intensification (RI). A capping of wind-driven heat uptake was found during periods of SS, SI, and RI. Compensationmore »by larger values of Δ q > 5 g kg −1 at moderate values of U 10 led to intense inner-core moisture fluxes of greater than 600 W m −2 during RI. Peak values in Δ q preferentially occurred over oceanic regimes with higher sea surface temperature (SST) and upper-ocean heat content. Thus, increasing SST and Δ q is a very effective way to increase surface heat fluxes—this can easily be achieved as a TC moves over deeper warm oceanic regimes.« less