This content will become publicly available on February 21, 2023

Transfer Learning Approaches for Neuroimaging Analysis: A Scoping Review
Deep learning algorithms have been moderately successful in diagnoses of diseases by analyzing medical images especially through neuroimaging that is rich in annotated data. Transfer learning methods have demonstrated strong performance in tackling annotated data. It utilizes and transfers knowledge learned from a source domain to target domain even when the dataset is small. There are multiple approaches to transfer learning that result in a range of performance estimates in diagnosis, detection, and classification of clinical problems. Therefore, in this paper, we reviewed transfer learning approaches, their design attributes, and their applications to neuroimaging problems. We reviewed two main literature databases and included the most relevant studies using predefined inclusion criteria. Among 50 reviewed studies, more than half of them are on transfer learning for Alzheimer's disease. Brain mapping and brain tumor detection were second and third most discussed research problems, respectively. The most common source dataset for transfer learning was ImageNet, which is not a neuroimaging dataset. This suggests that the majority of studies preferred pre-trained models instead of training their own model on a neuroimaging dataset. Although, about one third of studies designed their own architecture, most studies used existing Convolutional Neural Network architectures. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was more »
Authors:
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10316630
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence
Volume:
5
ISSN:
2624-8212
National Science Foundation
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2. Abstract Background

Natural language processing (NLP) tasks in the health domain often deal with limited amount of labeled data due to high annotation costs and naturally rare observations. To compensate for the lack of training data, health NLP researchers often have to leverage knowledge and resources external to a task at hand. Recently, pretrained large-scale language models such as the Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) have been proven to be a powerful way of learning rich linguistic knowledge from massive unlabeled text and transferring that knowledge to downstream tasks. However, previous downstream tasks often used training data at such a large scale that is unlikely to obtain in the health domain. In this work, we aim to study whether BERT can still benefit downstream tasks when training data are relatively small in the context of health NLP.

Method

We conducted a learning curve analysis to study the behavior of BERT and baseline models as training data size increases. We observed the classification performance of these models on two disease diagnosis data sets, where some diseases are naturally rare and have very limited observations (fewer than 2 out of 10,000). The baselines included commonly used text classification models such as sparse andmore »

Results

On the task of classifying all diseases, the learning curves of BERT were consistently above all baselines, significantly outperforming them across the spectrum of training data sizes. But under extreme situations where only one or two training documents per disease were available, BERT was outperformed by linear classifiers with carefully engineered bag-of-words features.

Conclusion

As long as the amount of training documents is not extremely few, fine-tuning a pretrained BERT model is a highly effective approach to health NLP tasks like disease classification. However, in extreme cases where each class has only one or two training documents and no more will be available, simple linear models using bag-of-words features shall be considered.

3. (Ed.)
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