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Title: Spatial versus temporal heterogeneity in abundance of fishes in north-temperate lakes [Spatial versus temporal heterogeneity in abundance of fishes in north-temperate lakes]
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Fundamental and Applied Limnology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. This data set is a derived data set based on fish catch data. Data are collected annually to enable us to track the fish assemblages of eleven primary lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog] and 12-15 [Trout Bog], Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Sampling on Lakes Monona, Wingra, and Fish started in 1995; sampling on other lakes started in 1981. Sampling is done at six littoral zone sites per lake with seine, minnow or crayfish traps, and fyke nets; a boat-mounted electrofishing system samples three littoral transects. Vertically hung gill nets are used to obtain two pelagic samples per lake from the deepest point. A trammel net samples across the thermocline at two sites per lake. In the bog lakes only fyke nets and minnow traps are deployed. Parameters measured include species-level identification and lengths for all fish caught, and weight and scale samples from a subset. Derived data sets include species richness, catch per unit effort, and size distribution by species, lake, and year. Protocol used to generate data: Day seines were only used in 1981 and have been eliminated from this data set to make sampling effort across years comparable. Number caught for each species is summed over repetitions of a gear within a lake and over depth. For information on fish stocking by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in LTER lakes in Dane and Vilas counties, see Beach seining was discontinued after 2019. The only sampling done in 2020 were a single gill-netting sample in Sparkling, Crystal, and Trout lakes. Sampling in Fish Lake was missed in 2021 due to significant lake level changes. Data from the two bogs is missing in 2022. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 11 
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  2. Crayfish data include crayfish catch in cylindrical minnow traps baited with beef liver and the occasional occurrence in other gear used to sample fish. Traps are now placed at fyke net locations in three study lakes (Big Muskellunge, Sparkling, and Trout), but historical data exists in nine study lakes (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, Trout, Mendota, Monona, Wingra and Fish). Individuals are identified to species and counted. In Trout and Sparkling Lake more detailed surveys have been conducted during the summer on an ad hoc basis to track distribution and abundance of the invading species Orconectes rusticus. In Sparkling lake, Rusty Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) was removed from 2001 to 2008. (Hein et al, Additional data sets consist of pre-LTER sets (initiated in late June 1972) gathered by Capelli (Ph.D. dissertation) and Lorman (Ph.D. dissertation). Most of pre-LTER data is detailed distribution in Trout Lake, and community composition in other area lakes. Note that 2020 data does not exist due to insufficient sampling, and beach seining was discontinued after the 2019 season. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 3 
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  3. Pelagic macroinvertebrates are collected at night from the deepest location of each of the seven primary lakes in the Trout Lake area (Allequash, Big Muskellunge, Crystal, Sparkling, and Trout lakes and bog lakes 27-02 [Crystal Bog], and 12-15 [Trout Bog]) by vertical tow with a 1-m diameter, 1-mm mesh net. On Trout Lake four additional sites are sampled, where depths are approximately 10m, 15m, 20m, and 25m. Sampling is once per year in the summer, with replicate tows collected on each lake. These tows target the large invertebrate planktivore component of the pelagic zooplankton community. This data set contains the number of individuals in each tow sample of four taxonomic groups: Chaoborus spp. (differentiating between larvae and pupae), Leptodora kindtii, Mysis relicta, and Bythotrephes longimanus. Trout Lake was the only lake sampled in 2020. Sampling Frequency: annually. Number of sites: 11 
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  4. Abstract

    Small waterbodies have potentially high greenhouse gas emissions relative to their small footprint on the landscape, although there is high uncertainty in model estimates. Scaling their carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchange with the atmosphere remains challenging due to an incomplete understanding and characterization of spatial and temporal variability in CO2and CH4. Here, we measured partial pressures of CO2(pCO2) and CH4(pCH4) across 30 ponds and shallow lakes during summer in temperate regions of Europe and North America. We sampled each waterbody in three locations at three times during the growing season, and tested which physical, chemical, and biological characteristics related to the means and variability ofpCO2andpCH4in space and time. Summer means ofpCO2andpCH4were inversely related to waterbody size and positively related to floating vegetative cover;pCO2was also positively related to dissolved phosphorus. Temporal variability in partial pressure in both gases weas greater than spatial variability. Although sampling on a single date was likely to misestimate mean seasonalpCO2by up to 26%, mean seasonalpCH4could be misestimated by up to 64.5%. Shallower systems displayed the most temporal variability inpCH4and waterbodies with more vegetation cover had lower temporal variability. Inland waters remain one of the most uncertain components of the global carbon budget; understanding spatial and temporal variability will ultimately help us to constrain our estimates and inform research priorities.

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