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This content will become publicly available on August 1, 2022

Title: Interaction of water with zeolites: a review
Water is ubiquitous in many thermal treatments and reaction conditions involving zeolite catalysts, but the potential impacts are complex. The different types of water interaction with zeolites have profound consequences in the stability, structure/ composition, and reactivity of these important catalysts. This review analyzes the current knowledge about the mechanistic aspects of water adsorption and nucleation on zeolites surfaces and the concomitant role of zeolite defects, cations and extra framework species. Examples of experimental and computational studies of water interaction with zeolites of varying Si/Al ratios, topologies, and level of silanol defects are reviewed and analyzed. The different steps associated with the process of steaming, including the Al-O-Si bond hydrolysis and subsequent structural modifications, such as dealumination, mesopore formation, and amorphization, are evaluated in light of recent DFT calculations, as well as SS NMR and other spectroscopic studies. Differences between the mechanisms of water attack of the zeolite in vapor or liquid phase are highlighted and explained, as well as the effect of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of the zeolite walls. In parallel, the various roles of water as modifier of reactivity are reviewed and discussed, both for plain zeolites as well as rare-earth or phosphorous-modified materials.
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Catalysis reviews science and engineering
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National Science Foundation
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