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Title: Mechanisms Underlying Target Selectivity for Cell Types and Subcellular Domains in Developing Neocortical Circuits
The cerebral cortex contains numerous neuronal cell types, distinguished by their molecular identity as well as their electrophysiological and morphological properties. Cortical function is reliant on stereotyped patterns of synaptic connectivity and synaptic function among these neuron types, but how these patterns are established during development remains poorly understood. Selective targeting not only of different cell types but also of distinct postsynaptic neuronal domains occurs in many brain circuits and is directed by multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms include the regulation of axonal and dendritic guidance and fine-scale morphogenesis of pre- and postsynaptic processes, lineage relationships, activity dependent mechanisms and intercellular molecular determinants such as transmembrane and secreted molecules, many of which have also been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, many studies of synaptic targeting have focused on circuits in which neuronal processes target different lamina, such that cell-type-biased connectivity may be confounded with mechanisms of laminar specificity. In the cerebral cortex, each cortical layer contains cell bodies and processes from intermingled neuronal cell types, an arrangement that presents a challenge for the development of target-selective synapse formation. Here, we address progress and future directions in the study of cell-type-biased synaptic targeting in the cerebral cortex. We highlight challenges to identifying more » developmental mechanisms generating stereotyped patterns of intracortical connectivity, recent developments in uncovering the determinants of synaptic target selection during cortical synapse formation, and current gaps in the understanding of cortical synapse specificity. « less
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Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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