Supercapacitor energy storage devices are well suited to meet the rigorous demands of future portable consumer electronics (PCEs) due to their high energy and power densities (i.e., longer battery-life and rapid charging, respectively) and superior operational lifetimes (10 times greater than lithium-ion batteries). To date, research efforts have been narrowly focused on improving the specific capacitance of these materials; however, emerging technologies are increasingly demanding competitive performance with regards to other criteria, including scalability of fabrication and electrochemical stability. In this regard, we developed a polyaniline (PANI) derivative that contains a carbazole unit copolymerized with 2,5-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (Cbz-PANI-1) and determined its optoelectronic properties, electrical conductivity, processability, and electrochemical stability. Importantly, the polymer exhibits good solubility in various solvents, which enables the use of scalable spray-coating and drop-casting methods to fabricate electrodes. Cbz-PANI-1 was used to fabricate electrodes for supercapacitor devices that exhibits a maximum areal capacitance of 64.8 mF cm–2 and specific capacitance of 319 F g–1 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm–2. Moreover, the electrode demonstrates excellent cyclic stability (≈ 83% of capacitance retention) over 1000 CV cycles. Additionally, we demonstrate the charge storage performance of Cbz-PANI-1 in a symmetrical supercapacitor device, which also exhibits excellent cyclic stabilitymore »
One-step hydrothermal synthesis of porous Ti 3 C 2 T z MXene/rGO gels for supercapacitor applications
Titanium carbide/reduced graphene oxide (Ti 3 C 2 T z /rGO) gels were prepared by a one-step hydrothermal process. The gels show a highly porous structure with a surface area of ∼224 m 2 g −1 and average pore diameter of ∼3.6 nm. The content of GO and Ti 3 C 2 T z nanosheets in the reaction precursor was varied to yield different microstructures. The supercapacitor performance of Ti 3 C 2 T z /rGO gels varied significantly with composition. Specific capacitance initially increased with increasing Ti 3 C 2 T z content, but at high Ti 3 C 2 T z content gels cannot be formed. Also, the retention of capacitance decreased with increasing Ti 3 C 2 T z content. Ti 3 C 2 T z /rGO gel electrodes exhibit enhanced supercapacitor properties with high potential window (1.5 V) and large specific capacitance (920 F g −1 ) in comparison to pure rGO and Ti 3 C 2 T z . The synergistic effect of EDLC from rGO and redox capacitance from Ti 3 C 2 T z was the reason for the enhanced supercapacitor performance. A symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor cell was constructed with Ti 3 C more »
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