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- Nature Communications
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- National Science Foundation
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An exciton, a two-body composite quasiparticle formed of an electron and hole, is a fundamental optical excitation in condensed matter systems. Since its discovery nearly a century ago, a measurement of the excitonic wave function has remained beyond experimental reach. Here, we directly image the excitonic wave function in reciprocal space by measuring the momentum distribution of electrons photoemitted from excitons in monolayer tungsten diselenide. By transforming to real space, we obtain a visual of the distribution of the electron around the hole in an exciton. Further, by also resolving the energy coordinate, we confirm the elusive theoretical prediction that the photoemitted electron exhibits an inverted energy-momentum dispersion relationship reflecting the valence band where the partner hole remains, rather than that of conduction band states of the electron.
Abstract The equilibrium and non-equilibrium optical properties of single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are determined by strongly bound excitons. Exciton relaxation dynamics in TMDs have been extensively studied by time-domain optical spectroscopies. However, the formation dynamics of excitons following non-resonant photoexcitation of free electron-hole pairs have been challenging to directly probe because of their inherently fast timescales. Here, we use extremely short optical pulses to non-resonantly excite an electron-hole plasma and show the formation of two-dimensional excitons in single-layer MoS 2 on the timescale of 30 fs via the induced changes to photo-absorption. These formation dynamics are significantly faster than in conventional 2D quantum wells and are attributed to the intense Coulombic interactions present in 2D TMDs. A theoretical model of a coherent polarization that dephases and relaxes to an incoherent exciton population reproduces the experimental dynamics on the sub-100-fs timescale and sheds light into the underlying mechanism of how the lowest-energy excitons, which are the most important for optoelectronic applications, form from higher-energy excitations. Importantly, a phonon-mediated exciton cascade from higher energy states to the ground excitonic state is found to be the rate-limiting process. These results set an ultimate timescale of the exciton formation in TMDs and elucidatemore »
The monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are an emergent semiconductor platform exhibiting rich excitonic physics with coupled spin-valley degree of freedom and optical addressability. Here, we report a new series of low energy excitonic emission lines in the photoluminescence spectrum of ultraclean monolayer WSe2. These excitonic satellites are composed of three major peaks with energy separations matching known phonons, and appear only with electron doping. They possess homogenous spatial and spectral distribution, strong power saturation, and anomalously long population (>6 µs) and polarization lifetimes (>100 ns). Resonant excitation of the free inter- and intravalley bright trions leads to opposite optical orientation of the satellites, while excitation of the free dark trion resonance suppresses the satellitesʼ photoluminescence. Defect-controlled crystal synthesis and scanning tunneling microscopy measurements provide corroboration that these features are dark excitons bound to dilute donors, along with associated phonon replicas. Our work opens opportunities to engineer homogenous single emitters and explore collective quantum optical phenomena using intrinsic donor-bound excitons in ultraclean 2D semiconductors.
Abstract Complex correlated states emerging from many-body interactions between quasiparticles (electrons, excitons and phonons) are at the core of condensed matter physics and material science. In low-dimensional materials, quantum confinement affects the electronic, and subsequently, optical properties for these correlated states. Here, by combining photoluminescence, optical reflection measurements and ab initio theoretical calculations, we demonstrate an unconventional excitonic state and its bound phonon sideband in layered silicon diphosphide (SiP 2 ), where the bound electron–hole pair is composed of electrons confined within one-dimensional phosphorus–phosphorus chains and holes extended in two-dimensional SiP 2 layers. The excitonic state and emergent phonon sideband show linear dichroism and large energy redshifts with increasing temperature. Our ab initio many-body calculations confirm that the observed phonon sideband results from the correlated interaction between excitons and optical phonons. With these results, we propose layered SiP 2 as a platform for the study of excitonic physics and many-particle effects.
Comparative steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy of Mn doped CsPbCl3 perovskites nanoparticles and bulk single crystals for photonic applicationsManganese doped inorganic halide perovskites continue to be of current interest for applications in light emitting devices and down-converters in solar cells. In this work we prepared Mn doped CsPbCl3 (Mn: CPC) bulk crystals and nanoparticles (NPs) and compared their emission properties. Bulk crystals were grown from the melt by vertical Bridgman technique and NPs were synthesized using a microwave assisted method. Under ultraviolet excitation at 350 nm, bulk crystal and NPs exhibited a broad orange emission centered in the ~600 nm range at room temperature. The broadbandemission was assigned to the intra-3d transition 4T1 → 6A1 of Mn2+ ions incorporated in the CPC host lattice. The Mn2+emission lifetimes were nearly exponential with values of 1.1 ms for NPs and 0.7 ms for the bulk crystal. NPs also showed exciton emission peaking at ~402 nm, whereas the bulk crystal exhibited no emission near the band-edge. Instead, the bulk material revealed a weak below-gap emission in the 450-550 nm region suggesting the existence of defect states. The excitation spectra for the orange Mn2+ emission from NPs and bulk crystals of Mn: CPC were significantly different indicating distinct excitation pathways. The excitation spectrum of the orange Mn2+ emission from NPs showed excitonicmore »