skip to main content

Title: Implicit Subgrid-Scale Modeling of a Mach 2.5 Spatially Developing Turbulent Boundary Layer
We employ numerically implicit subgrid-scale modeling provided by the well-known streamlined upwind/Petrov–Galerkin stabilization for the finite element discretization of advection–diffusion problems in a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach. Whereas its original purpose was to provide sufficient algorithmic dissipation for a stable and convergent numerical method, more recently, it has been utilized as a subgrid-scale (SGS) model to account for the effect of small scales, unresolvable by the discretization. The freestream Mach number is 2.5, and direct comparison with a DNS database from our research group, as well as with experiments from the literature of adiabatic supersonic spatially turbulent boundary layers, is performed. Turbulent inflow conditions are generated via our dynamic rescaling–recycling approach, recently extended to high-speed flows. Focus is given to the assessment of the resolved Reynolds stresses. In addition, flow visualization is performed to obtain a much better insight into the physics of the flow. A weak compressibility effect is observed on thermal turbulent structures based on two-point correlations (IC vs. supersonic). The Reynolds analogy (u′ vs. t′) approximately holds for the supersonic regime, but to a lesser extent than previously observed in incompressible (IC) turbulent boundary layers, where temperature was assumed as a passive scalar. A much longer power law behavior of the mean streamwise velocity is computed in the outer region when compared to the log law at Mach 2.5. Implicit LES has shown very good performance in Mach 2.5 adiabatic flat plates in terms of the mean flow (i.e., Cf and UVD+). iLES significantly overpredicts the peak values of u′, and consequently Reynolds shear stress peaks, in the buffer layer. However, excellent agreement between the turbulence intensities and Reynolds shear stresses is accomplished in the outer region by the present iLES with respect to the external DNS database at similar Reynolds numbers.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of compressible spatially-developing turbulent boundary layers (SDTBL) is performed at a Mach number of 2.5 and low/high Reynolds numbers over isothermal Zero-Pressure Gradient (ZPG) flat plates. Turbulent inflow information is generated via a dynamic rescaling-recycling approach (J. Fluid Mech., 670, pp. 581-605, 2011), which avoids the use of empirical correlations in the computation of inlet turbulent scales. The range of the low Reynolds number case is approximately 400-800, based on the momentum thickness, freestream velocity and wall viscosity. DNS at higher Reynolds numbers (~3,000, about four-fold larger) is also carried out with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Reynolds number on the transport phenomena in the supersonic regime. Additionally, low/high order flow statistics are compared with DNS of an incompressible isothermal ZPG boundary layer at similar low Reynolds numbers and the temperature regarded as a passive scalar. Peaks of turbulence intensities move closer to the wall as the Reynolds number increases in the supersonic flat plate. Furthermore, Reynolds shear stresses depict a much larger "plateau" (constant shear layer) at the highest Reynolds number considered in present study. 
    more » « less
  2. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent spatially-developing boundary layers is performed over an isothermal flat plate at several flow regimes: incompressible, supersonic (Mach 2.5), and hypersonic (Mach 5). Similar low Reynolds numbers are considered in all cases with the purpose of assessing flow compressibility on low/high order flow statistics and on the dynamics of coherent structures of Zero Pressure Gradient (ZPG) flows. Turbulent inflow information is generated by following the concept of the rescaling-recycling approach introduced by Lund et al. (J. Comp. Phys. 140, 233-258, 1998); although, the proposed methodology is extended to high-speed flows. Furthermore, a dynamic approach is employed to connect the friction velocities at the inlet and recycle stations (i.e., there is no need of an empirical correlation as in Lund et al.). The Mach number effect has been mainly identified as significant changes in peak values of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. The vertical transport of Reynolds shear stresses is slightly away from the wall in the near wall region for the hypersonic case. Zones of low speed fluid exhibits a much more elongated shape in incompressible flow as compared with the compressible counterpart. Furthermore, low speed streaks exhibit a contorted, twisted and stretched form in incompressible flow while they are shorter and more isotropic in the supersonic flow. 
    more » « less
  3. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to investigate the spatial evolution of flat-plate zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers over long streamwise domains ( ${>}300\delta _i$ , with $\delta _i$ the inflow boundary-layer thickness) at three different Mach numbers, $2.5$ , $4.9$ and $10.9$ , with the surface temperatures ranging from quasiadiabatic to highly cooled conditions. The settlement of turbulence statistics into a fully developed equilibrium state of the turbulent boundary layer has been carefully monitored, either based on the satisfaction of the von Kármán integral equation or by comparing runs with different inflow turbulence generation techniques. The generated DNS database is used to characterize the streamwise evolution of multiple important variables in the high-Mach-number, cold-wall regime, including the skin friction, the Reynolds analogy factor, the shape factor, the Reynolds stresses, and the fluctuating wall quantities. The data confirm the validity of many classic and newer compressibility transformations at moderately high Reynolds numbers (up to friction Reynolds number $Re_\tau \approx 1200$ ) and show that, with proper scaling, the sizes of the near-wall streaks and superstructures are insensitive to the Mach number and wall cooling conditions. The strong wall cooling in the hypersonic cold-wall case is found to cause a significant increase in the size of the near-wall turbulence eddies (relative to the boundary-layer thickness), which leads to a reduced-scale separation between the large and small turbulence scales, and in turn to a lack of an outer peak in the spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region. 
    more » « less
  4. The asymptotic behaviour of Reynolds stresses close to walls is well established in incompressible flows owing to the constraint imposed by the solenoidal nature of the velocity field. For compressible flows, thus, one may expect a different asymptotic behaviour, which has indeed been noted in the literature. However, the transition from incompressible to compressible scaling, as well as the limiting behaviour for the latter, is largely unknown. Thus, we investigate the effects of compressibility on the near-wall, asymptotic behaviour of turbulent fluxes using a large direct numerical simulation (DNS) database of turbulent channel flow at higher than usual wall-normal resolutions. We vary the Mach number at a constant friction Reynolds number to directly assess compressibility effects. We observe that the near-wall asymptotic behaviour for compressible turbulent flow is different from the corresponding incompressible flow even if the mean density variations are taken into account and semi-local scalings are used. For Mach numbers near the incompressible regimes, the near-wall asymptotic behaviour follows the well-known theoretical behaviour. When the Mach number is increased, turbulent fluxes containing wall-normal components show a decrease in the slope owing to increased dilatation effects. We observe that $R_{vv}$ approaches its high-Mach-number asymptote at a lower Mach number than that required for the other fluxes. We also introduce a transition distance from the wall at which turbulent fluxes exhibit a change in scaling exponents. Implications for wall models are briefly presented. 
    more » « less
  5. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the full-scale axisymmetric nozzle of a Mach 8 wind tunnel are conducted with an emphasis on characterizing the properties of the pressure fluctua- tions induced by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) along the nozzle wall. The axisymmetric nozzle geometry and the flow conditions of the DNS match those of the Sandia Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Mach 8. The mean and turbulence statistics of the nozzle-wall boundary layer show good agreement with those predicted by Pate’s correlation and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations. The wall-pressure intensity, power spectral density, and coherence predicted by DNS show good comparisons with those measured in the same tunnel. The Corcos model is found to deliver good prediction of wall pressure coherence over inter- mediate and high frequencies. The streamwise and spanwise decay constants at Mach 8 are similar to those predicted by DNS and experiments at lower supersonic Mach numbers. 
    more » « less