skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on September 28, 2022

Title: Roles and Mechanisms of Irisin in Attenuating Pathological Features of Osteoarthritis
To investigate the effects and mechanisms of irisin, a newly discovered myokine, in cartilage development, osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology and its therapeutic potential for treating OA we applied the following five strategical analyses using (1) murine joint tissues at different developmental stages; (2) human normal and OA pathological tissue samples; (3) experimental OA mouse model; (4) irisin gene knockout (KO) and knock in (KI) mouse lines and their cartilage cells; (5) in vitro mechanistic experiments. We found that Irisin was involved in all stages of cartilage development. Both human and mouse OA tissues showed a decreased expression of irisin. Intra-articular injection of irisin attenuated ACLT-induced OA progression. Irisin knockout mice developed severe OA while irisin overexpression in both irisin KI mice and intraarticular injection of irisin protein attenuated OA progression. Irisin inhibited inflammation and promoted anabolism in chondrogenic ADTC5 cells. Proliferative potential of primary chondrocytes from KI mice was found to be enhanced, while KO mice showed an inhibition under normal or inflammatory conditions. The primary chondrocytes from irisin KI mice showed reduced expression of inflammatory factors and the chondrocytes isolated from KO mice showed an opposite pattern. In conclusion, it is the first time to show that irisin is involved more » in cartilage development and OA pathogenesis. Irisin has the potential to ameliorate OA progression by decreasing cartilage degradation and inhibiting inflammation, which could lead to the development of a novel therapeutic target for treating bone and cartilage disorders including osteoarthritis. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
2001606
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10322263
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Volume:
9
ISSN:
2296-634X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic and degenerative joint disease, remains a challenge in treatment due to the lack of disease-modifying therapies. As a promising therapeutic agent, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have an effective anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective paracrine effect that can be enhanced by genetic modification. Unfortunately, direct cell delivery without matrix support often results in poor viability of therapeutic cells. Herein, a hydrogel implant approach that enabled intra-articular delivery of gene-engineered ADSCs was developed for improved therapeutic outcomes in a surgically induced rat OA model. An injectable extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimicking hydrogel was prepared as the carrier for cell delivery, providing amore »favorable microenvironment for ADSC spreading and proliferation. The ECM-mimicking hydrogel could reduce cell death during and post injection. Additionally, ADSCs were genetically modified to overexpress transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), one of the paracrine factors that exert an anti-inflammatory and pro-anabolic effect. The gene-engineered ADSCs overexpressing TGF-β1 (T-ADSCs) had an enhanced paracrine effect on OA-like chondrocytes, which effectively decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and increased the expression of collagen II and aggrecan. In a surgically induced rat OA model, intra-articular injection of the T-ADSC-loaded hydrogel markedly reduced cartilage degeneration, joint inflammation, and the loss of the subchondral bone. Taken together, this study provides a potential biomaterial strategy for enhanced OA treatment by delivering the gene-engineered ADSCs within an ECM-mimicking hydrogel.« less
  2. Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint is a degenerative disease initiated by mechanical stress that affects millions of individuals. The disease manifests as joint damage and synovial inflammation. Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a specific form of OA caused by mechanical trauma to the joint. The progression of PTOA is prevented by immediate post-injury therapeutic intervention. Intra-articular injection of anti-inflammatory therapeutics (e.g. corticosteroids) is a common treatment option for OA before end-stage surgical intervention. However, the efficacy of intra-articular injection is limited due to poor drug retention time in the joint space and the variable efficacy of corticosteroids. Here, wemore »endeavored to characterize a four-arm maleimide-functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG-4MAL) hydrogel system as a ‘mechanical pillow’ to cushion the load-bearing joint, withstand repetitive loading and improve the efficacy of intra-articular injections of nanoparticles containing dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory agent. PEG-4MAL hydrogels maintained their mechanical properties after physiologically relevant cyclic compression and released therapeutic payload in an on-demand manner under in vitro inflammatory conditions. Importantly, the on-demand hydrogels did not release nanoparticles under repetitive mechanical loading as experienced by daily walking. Although dexamethasone had minimal protective effects on OA-like pathology in our studies, the PEG-4MAL hydrogel functioned as a mechanical pillow to protect the knee joint from cartilage degradation and inhibit osteophyte formation in an in vivo load-induced OA mouse model.« less
  3. Disorders of cartilage homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis are major events in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Herein, we sought to assess the chondroprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of a novel chemically modified curcumin, CMC2.24, in modulating extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis and inhibiting chondrocyte apoptosis. Rats underwent the anterior cruciate ligament transection and medial menisci resection were treated by intra-articular injection with CMC2.24. In vitro study, rat chondrocytes were pretreated with CMC2.24 before stimulation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The effects of CMC2.24 on cartilage homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis were observed. The results from in vivo studies demonstrated that the intra-articular administrationmore »of CMC2.24 delayed cartilage degeneration and suppressed chondrocyte apoptosis. CMC2.24 ameliorated osteoarthritic cartilage destruction by promoting collagen 2a1 production and inhibited cartilage degradation and apoptosis by suppressing hypoxia-inducible factor-2a (Hif-2α), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), cleaved caspase-3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65. The in vitro results revealed that CMC2.24 exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on SNP-induced chondrocyte catabolism and apoptosis. The SNP-enhanced expression of Hif-2α, catabolic and apoptotic factor, decreased after CMC2.24 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. CMC2.24 pretreatment effectively inhibited SNP-induced IκBα and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in rat chondrocytes, whereas the pretreatment with NF-κB antagonist BMS-345541 significantly enhanced the effects of CMC2.24. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CMC2.24 attenuates OA progression by modulating ECM homeostasis and chondrocyte apoptosis via suppression of the NF-κB/Hif-2α axis, thus providing a new perspective for the therapeutic strategy of OA.« less
  4. Abstract Background The BIN1 locus contains the second-most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. BIN1 undergoes alternate splicing to generate tissue- and cell-type-specific BIN1 isoforms, which regulate membrane dynamics in a range of crucial cellular processes. Whilst the expression of BIN1 in the brain has been characterized in neurons and oligodendrocytes in detail, information regarding microglial BIN1 expression is mainly limited to large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data. Notably, BIN1 protein expression and its functional roles in microglia, a cell type most relevant to Alzheimer’s disease, have not been examined in depth. Methods Microglial BIN1 expression was analyzed bymore »immunostaining mouse and human brain, as well as by immunoblot and RT-PCR assays of isolated microglia or human iPSC-derived microglial cells. Bin1 expression was ablated by siRNA knockdown in primary microglial cultures in vitro and Cre-lox mediated conditional deletion in adult mouse brain microglia in vivo. Regulation of neuroinflammatory microglial signatures by BIN1 in vitro and in vivo was characterized using NanoString gene panels and flow cytometry methods. The transcriptome data was explored by in silico pathway analysis and validated by complementary molecular approaches. Results Here, we characterized microglial BIN1 expression in vitro and in vivo and ascertained microglia expressed BIN1 isoforms. By silencing Bin1 expression in primary microglial cultures, we demonstrate that BIN1 regulates the activation of proinflammatory and disease-associated responses in microglia as measured by gene expression and cytokine production. Our transcriptomic profiling revealed key homeostatic and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response pathways, as well as transcription factors PU.1 and IRF1 that are regulated by BIN1. Microglia-specific Bin1 conditional knockout in vivo revealed novel roles of BIN1 in regulating the expression of disease-associated genes while counteracting CX3CR1 signaling. The consensus from in vitro and in vivo findings showed that loss of Bin1 impaired the ability of microglia to mount type 1 interferon responses to proinflammatory challenge, particularly the upregulation of a critical type 1 immune response gene, Ifitm3 . Conclusions Our convergent findings provide novel insights into microglial BIN1 function and demonstrate an essential role of microglial BIN1 in regulating brain inflammatory response and microglial phenotypic changes. Moreover, for the first time, our study shows a regulatory relationship between Bin1 and Ifitm3 , two Alzheimer’s disease-related genes in microglia. The requirement for BIN1 to regulate Ifitm3 upregulation during inflammation has important implications for inflammatory responses during the pathogenesis and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Graphical Abstract« less
  5. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a C-type collectin and plays an important role in innate immunity and homeostasis in the lung. This study studied SP-D role in the nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)-induced otitis media (OM) mouse model. Wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. Mice were injected in the middle ear (ME) with 5 μL of NTHi bacterial solution (3.5 × 105 CFU/ear) or with the same volume of sterile saline (control). Mice were sacrificed at 3 time points, days 1, 3, and 7, after treatment. We found SP-D expression in the Eustachian tubemore »(ET) and ME mucosa of WT mice but not in SP-D KO mice. After infection, SP-D KO mice showed more intense inflammatory changes evidenced by the increased mucosal thickness and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ME and ET compared to WT mice (p < 0.05). Increased bacterial colony-forming units and cytokine (IL-6 and IL-1β) levels in the ear washing fluid of infected SP-D KO mice were compared to infected WT mice. Molecular analysis revealed higher levels of NF-κB and NLRP3 activation in infected SP-D KO compared to WT mice (p < 0.05). In vitro studies demonstrated that SP-D significantly induced NTHi bacterial aggregation and enhanced bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages (p < 0.05). Furthermore, human ME epithelial cells showed a dose-dependent increased expression of NLRP3 and SP-D proteins after LPS treatment. We conclude that SP-D plays a critical role in innate immunity and disease resolution through enhancing host defense and regulating inflammatory NF-κB and NLRP3 activation in experimental OM mice.« less