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- ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology
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- National Science Foundation
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Focused Ga + ion milling of lightly Si-doped, n-type Ga 2 O 3 was performed with 2–30 kV ions at normal incidence and beam currents that were a function of beam voltage, 65 nA for 30 kV, 26 nA for 10 kV, 13 nA for 5 kV, and 7.1 nA for 2 kV, to keep the milling depth constant at 100 nm. Approximate milling rates were 15, 6, 2.75, and 1.5 μm 3 /s for 30, 10, 5, and 2 kV, respectively. The electrical effects of the ion damage were characterized by Schottky barrier height and diode ideality factor on vertical rectifier structures comprising 10 μm epitaxial n-Ga 2 O 3 on n + Ga 2 O 3 substrates, while the structural damage was imaged by transmission electron microscopy. The reverse bias leakage was largely unaffected even by milling at 30 kV beam energy, while the forward current-voltage characteristics showed significant deterioration at 5 kV, with an increase in the ideality factor from 1.25 to 2.25. The I–V characteristics no longer showed rectification for the 30 kV condition. Subsequent annealing up to 400 °C produced substantial recovery of the I–V characteristics for all beam energies and was sufficient to restore the initial ideality factor completely for beam energies up to 5 kV. Even the 30 kV-exposedmore »
Schottky diode characteristics on high-growth rate LPCVD β -Ga 2 O 3 films on (010) and (001) Ga 2 O 3 substrates
High crystalline quality thick β-Ga2O3drift layers are essential for multi-kV vertical power devices. Low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is suitable for achieving high growth rates. This paper presents a systematic study of the Schottky barrier diodes fabricated on four different Si-doped homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3thin films grown on Sn-doped (010) and (001) β-Ga2O3substrates by LPCVD with a fast growth rate varying from 13 to 21 μm/h. A higher temperature growth results in the highest reported growth rate to date. Room temperature current density–voltage data for different Schottky diodes are presented, and diode characteristics, such as ideality factor, barrier height, specific on-resistance, and breakdown voltage are studied. Temperature dependence (25–250 °C) of the ideality factor, barrier height, and specific on-resistance is also analyzed from the J–V–T characteristics of the fabricated Schottky diodes.
The thermal stability of n/n + β -Ga 2 O 3 epitaxial layer/substrate structures with sputtered ITO on both sides to act as rectifying contacts on the lightly doped layer and Ohmic on the heavily doped substrate is reported. The resistivity of the ITO deposited separately on Si decreased from 1.83 × 10 −3 Ω.cm as-deposited to 3.6 × 10 −4 Ω.cm after 300 °C anneal, with only minor reductions at higher temperatures (2.8 × 10 −4 Ω.cm after 600 °C anneals). The Schottky barrier height also decreased with annealing, from 0.98 eV in the as-deposited samples to 0.85 eV after 500 °C annealing. The reverse breakdown voltage exhibited a negative temperature coefficient of −0.46 V.C −1 up to an annealing temperature of 400 °C and degraded faster at higher temperatures. Transmission Electron Microscopy showed significant reaction at the ITO and Ga 2 O 3 interface above 300 °C, with a very degraded contact stack after annealing at 500 °C.
Electrical properties of α-Ga 2 O 3 films grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire with α-Cr 2 O 3 buffers
We report on growth and electrical properties of α-Ga2O3films prepared by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) at 500 °C on α-Cr2O3buffers predeposited on sapphire by magnetron sputtering. The α-Cr2O3buffers showed a wide microcathodoluminescence (MCL) peak near 350 nm corresponding to the α-Cr2O3bandgap and a sharp MCL line near 700 nm due to the Cr+intracenter transition. Ohmic contacts to Cr2O3were made with both Ti/Au or Ni, producing linear current–voltage ( I– V) characteristics over a wide temperature range with an activation energy of conductivity of ∼75 meV. The sign of thermoelectric power indicated p-type conductivity of the buffers. Sn-doped, 2- μm-thick α-Ga2O3films prepared on this buffer by HVPE showed donor ionization energies of 0.2–0.25 eV, while undoped films were resistive with the Fermi level pinned at ECof 0.3 eV. The I– V and capacitance–voltage ( C– V) characteristics of Ni Schottky diodes on Sn-doped samples using a Cr2O3buffer indicated the presence of two face-to-face junctions, one between n-Ga2O3and p-Cr2O3, the other due to the Ni Schottky diode with n-Ga2O3. The spectral dependence of the photocurrent measured on the structure showed the presence of three major deep traps with optical ionization thresholds near 1.3, 2, and 2.8 eV. Photoinduced current transient spectroscopy spectra of the structures were dominated bymore »
In this Letter, we unveil the high-temperature limits of N-polar GaN Schottky contacts enhanced by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposited (LPCVD) SiN interlayer. Compared to conventional Schottky diodes, the insertion of a 5 nm SiN lossy dielectric interlayer in-between Ni and N-polar GaN increases the turn-on voltage ( V ON ) from 0.4 to 0.9 V and the barrier height ( ϕ B ) from 0.4 to 0.8 eV. This modification also reduces the leakage current at zero bias significantly: at room temperature, the leakage current in the conventional Schottky diode is >10 3 larger than that observed in the device with the SiN interlayer, while at 200 °C, this ratio increases to 10 5 . Thus, the rectification ratio (I ON /I OFF ) at ±1.5 V reduces to less than one at 250 °C for the conventional Schottky diode, whereas for SiN-coated diodes, rectification continues until 500 °C. The I–V characteristics of the diode with an SiN interlayer can be recovered after exposure to 400 °C or lower. Contact degradation occurs at 500 °C, although devices are not destroyed yet. Here, we report N-polar GaN Schottky contact operation up to 500 °C using an LPCVD SiN interlayer.