- NSF-PAR ID:
- Gralnick, Jeffrey A.
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Microbiology Spectrum
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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McBain, Andrew J. (Ed.)ABSTRACT The recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from metagenomic data has recently become a common task for microbial studies. The strengths and limitations of the underlying bioinformatics algorithms are well appreciated by now based on performance tests with mock data sets of known composition. However, these mock data sets do not capture the complexity and diversity often observed within natural populations, since their construction typically relies on only a single genome of a given organism. Further, it remains unclear if MAGs can recover population-variable genes (those shared by >10% but <90% of the members of the population) as efficiently as core genes (those shared by >90% of the members). To address these issues, we compared the gene variabilities of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from eight diarrheal samples, for which the isolate was the causative agent, against their corresponding MAGs recovered from the companion metagenomic data set. Our analysis revealed that MAGs with completeness estimates near 95% captured only 77% of the population core genes and 50% of the variable genes, on average. Further, about 5% of the genes of these MAGs were conservatively identified as missing in the isolate and were of different (non- Enterobacteriaceae ) taxonomic origin, suggesting errors at the genome-binning step, even though contamination estimates based on commonly used pipelines were only 1.5%. Therefore, the quality of MAGs may often be worse than estimated, and we offer examples of how to recognize and improve such MAGs to sufficient quality by (for instance) employing only contigs longer than 1,000 bp for binning. IMPORTANCE Metagenome assembly and the recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) have recently become common tasks for microbiome studies across environmental and clinical settings. However, the extent to which MAGs can capture the genes of the population they represent remains speculative. Current approaches to evaluating MAG quality are limited to the recovery and copy number of universal housekeeping genes, which represent a small fraction of the total genome, leaving the majority of the genome essentially inaccessible. If MAG quality in reality is lower than these approaches would estimate, this could have dramatic consequences for all downstream analyses and interpretations. In this study, we evaluated this issue using an approach that employed comparisons of the gene contents of MAGs to the gene contents of isolate genomes derived from the same sample. Further, our samples originated from a diarrhea case-control study, and thus, our results are relevant for recovering the virulence factors of pathogens from metagenomic data sets.more » « less
Exploring metagenomic contigs and “binning” them into metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) are essential for the delineation of functional and evolutionary guilds within microbial communities. Despite the advances in automated binning algorithms, their capabilities in recovering MAGs with accuracy and biological relevance are so far limited. Researchers often find that human involvement is necessary to achieve representative binning results. This manual process however is expertise demanding and labor intensive, and it deserves to be supported by software infrastructure.
We present BinaRena, a comprehensive and versatile graphic interface dedicated to aiding human operators to explore metagenome assemblies via customizable visualization and to associate contigs with bins. Contigs are rendered as an interactive scatter plot based on various data types, including sequence metrics, coverage profiles, taxonomic assignments, and functional annotations. Various contig-level operations are permitted, such as selection, masking, highlighting, focusing, and searching. Binning plans can be conveniently edited, inspected, and compared visually or using metrics including silhouette coefficient and adjusted Rand index. Completeness and contamination of user-selected contigs can be calculated in real time.
In demonstration of BinaRena’s usability, we show that it facilitated biological pattern discovery, hypothesis generation, and bin refinement in a complex tropical peatland metagenome. It enabled isolation of pathogenic genomes within closely related populations from the gut microbiota of diarrheal human subjects. It significantly improved overall binning quality after curating results of automated binners using a simulated marine dataset.
BinaRena is an installation-free, dependency-free, client-end web application that operates directly in any modern web browser, facilitating ease of deployment and accessibility for researchers of all skill levels. The program is hosted at
https://github.com/qiyunlab/binarena, together with documentation, tutorials, example data, and a live demo. It effectively supports human researchers in intuitive interpretation and fine tuning of metagenomic data.
Abstract Background Tropical members of the sponge genus Ircinia possess highly complex microbiomes that perform a broad spectrum of chemical processes that influence host fitness. Despite the pervasive role of microbiomes in Ircinia biology, it is still unknown how they remain in stable association across tropical species. To address this question, we performed a comparative analysis of the microbiomes of 11 Ircinia species using whole-metagenomic shotgun sequencing data to investigate three aspects of bacterial symbiont genomes—the redundancy in metabolic pathways across taxa, the evolution of genes involved in pathogenesis, and the nature of selection acting on genes relevant to secondary metabolism. Results A total of 424 new, high-quality bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were produced for 10 Caribbean Ircinia species, which were evaluated alongside 113 publicly available MAGs sourced from the Pacific species Ircinia ramosa . Evidence of redundancy was discovered in that the core genes of several primary metabolic pathways could be found in the genomes of multiple bacterial taxa. Across hosts, the metagenomes were depleted in genes relevant to pathogenicity and enriched in eukaryotic-like proteins (ELPs) that likely mimic the hosts’ molecular patterning. Finally, clusters of steroid biosynthesis genes (CSGs), which appear to be under purifying selection and undergo horizontal gene transfer, were found to be a defining feature of Ircinia metagenomes. Conclusions These results illustrate patterns of genome evolution within highly complex microbiomes that illuminate how associations with hosts are maintained. The metabolic redundancy within the microbiomes could help buffer the hosts from changes in the ambient chemical and physical regimes and from fluctuations in the population sizes of the individual microbial strains that make up the microbiome. Additionally, the enrichment of ELPs and depletion of LPS and cellular motility genes provide a model for how alternative strategies to virulence can evolve in microbiomes undergoing mixed-mode transmission that do not ultimately result in higher levels of damage (i.e., pathogenicity) to the host. Our last set of results provides evidence that sterol biosynthesis in Ircinia -associated bacteria is widespread and that these molecules are important for the survival of bacteria in highly complex Ircinia microbiomes.more » « less
Jansson, Janet K. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Soil ecosystems harbor diverse microorganisms and yet remain only partially characterized as neither single-cell sequencing nor whole-community sequencing offers a complete picture of these complex communities. Thus, the genetic and metabolic potential of this “uncultivated majority” remains underexplored. To address these challenges, we applied a pooled-cell-sorting-based mini-metagenomics approach and compared the results to bulk metagenomics. Informatic binning of these data produced 200 mini-metagenome assembled genomes (sorted-MAGs) and 29 bulk metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs). The sorted and bulk MAGs increased the known phylogenetic diversity of soil taxa by 7.2% with respect to the Joint Genome Institute IMG/M database and showed clade-specific sequence recruitment patterns across diverse terrestrial soil metagenomes. Additionally, sorted-MAGs expanded the rare biosphere not captured through MAGs from bulk sequences, exemplified through phylogenetic and functional analyses of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes . Analysis of 67 Bacteroidetes sorted-MAGs showed conserved patterns of carbon metabolism across four clades. These results indicate that mini-metagenomics enables genome-resolved investigation of predicted metabolism and demonstrates the utility of combining metagenomics methods to tap into the diversity of heterogeneous microbial assemblages. IMPORTANCE Microbial ecologists have historically used cultivation-based approaches as well as amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to characterize microbial diversity in soil. However, challenges persist in the study of microbial diversity, including the recalcitrance of the majority of microorganisms to laboratory cultivation and limited sequence assembly from highly complex samples. The uncultivated majority thus remains a reservoir of untapped genetic diversity. To address some of the challenges associated with bulk metagenomics as well as low throughput of single-cell genomics, we applied flow cytometry-enabled mini-metagenomics to capture expanded microbial diversity from forest soil and compare it to soil bulk metagenomics. Our resulting data from this pooled-cell sorting approach combined with bulk metagenomics revealed increased phylogenetic diversity through novel soil taxa and rare biosphere members. In-depth analysis of genomes within the highly represented Bacteroidetes phylum provided insights into conserved and clade-specific patterns of carbon metabolism.more » « less
The introduction of high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) into metagenomics enables reconstructing high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from microbial communities. Despite recent advances in recovering eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal genomes using Hi-C contact maps, few of Hi-C-based methods are designed to retrieve viral genomes. Here we introduce ViralCC, a publicly available tool to recover complete viral genomes and detect virus-host pairs using Hi-C data. Compared to other Hi-C-based methods, ViralCC leverages the virus-host proximity structure as a complementary information source for the Hi-C interactions. Using mock and real metagenomic Hi-C datasets from several different microbial ecosystems, including the human gut, cow fecal, and wastewater, we demonstrate that ViralCC outperforms existing Hi-C-based binning methods as well as state-of-the-art tools specifically dedicated to metagenomic viral binning. ViralCC can also reveal the taxonomic structure of viruses and virus-host pairs in microbial communities. When applied to a real wastewater metagenomic Hi-C dataset, ViralCC constructs a phage-host network, which is further validated using CRISPR spacer analyses. ViralCC is an open-source pipeline available at