skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, June 13 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, June 14 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Adolescents' adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines during the COVID‐19 pandemic
Background:The outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in theUnited States resulted in safety guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC) intended to curb the spread of the virus. Adolescents are poten-tially at risk for disregarding these guidelines due to their reduced psychosocial matu-rity compared with adults. The current study examined the relationship betweenadolescents' psychosocial maturity, perceived importance of the CDC guidelines andadherence to the CDC guidelines within some of the highest risk groups for contract-ing COVID-19 in a county particularly impacted by the pandemic (i.e., Hispanic andlow-SES youth in El Paso, Texas).Methods:Participants completed a phone interview with a research assistant regard-ing their thoughts and behaviours in the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic.Adolescents (N=68) were 15.38 years old on average (SD=1.05,range=13, 17),predominantly male (60.3%) and nearly exclusively Hispanic/Latino (94.1%).Results:Results indicated that although more psychosocially mature adolescentsreported greater adherence to the CDC guidelines than less psychosocially matureadolescents, the association between psychosocial maturity and adherence was fullymediated by how important adolescents felt it was to follow the guidelines. Specifi-cally, greater perceived importance was associated with greater adherence to theguidelines.Conclusions:The current study found that more psychosocially mature adolescentsadhere to CDC's safety guidelines better than less psychosocially mature adolescentsbecause they are more likely to view the guidelines as important. Information thatattempts to increase adolescent adherence to the guidelines should thereforeemphasize not only that following the guidelines is important, butwhyfollowing theguidelines is so important. Less psychosocially mature adolescents may benefit mostfrom interventions efforts and targeted messages regarding the importance offollowing the CDC's guidelines, as more psychosocially mature adolescents alreadyrecognize this importance.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2028534 1826585
NSF-PAR ID:
10323534
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Child: Care, Health and Development
ISSN:
0305-1862
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1-10
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Background: The health belief model suggests that individuals' beliefs affect behaviors associated with health. This study examined whether Ohioans' pre-existing medical health diagnoses affected their belief about personal health risk and their compliance with social distancing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Prior research examining physical and mental diagnoses and social distancing compliance is nearly nonexistent. We examined whether physical and mental health diagnoses influenced individuals' beliefs that their health is at risk and their adherence with social distancing guidelines. Methods: The study used longitudinal cohort data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 790), which surveyed Ohioans prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dependent variables included belief that an individual's own health was at risk and social distancing compliance. Independent variables included physical and mental health diagnoses, pandemic-related factors (fear of COVID-19, political beliefs about the pandemic, friends social distance, family social distance, COVID-19 exposure), and sociodemographic variables (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational level). Results: Individuals who had a pre-existing physical health diagnosis were more likely to believe that their personal health was at risk during the pandemic but were not more likely to comply with social distancing guidelines. In contrast, individuals who had a pre-existing mental health diagnosis were more compliant with social distancing guidelines but were not more likely to believe their personal health was at risk. Individuals who expressed greater fear of COVID-19 believed their health is more at risk than those who expressed lower levels of fear. Conclusion: Health considerations are important to account for in assessments of responses to the pandemic, beliefs about personal health risk, and social distancing behavior. Additional research is needed to understand the divergence in the findings regarding physical health, beliefs about personal health risk, and social distancing compliance. Further, research is needed to understand how mental health issues impact decision-making related to social distancing compliance. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    In Spring/Summer 2020, most individuals living in the United States experienced several months of social distancing and stay-at-home orders because of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinicians, restaurant cooks, cashiers, transit operators, and other essential workers (EWs), however, continued to work outside the home during this time in order to keep others alive and maintain a functioning society. In the United States, EWs are often low-income persons of color who are more likely to face socioeconomic vulnerabilities, systemic racism, and health inequities. To assess the various impacts of COVID-19 on EWs, an online survey was distributed to a representative sample of individuals residing in six states during May/June 2020. The sample included 990 individuals who identified as EWs and 736 nonessential workers (NWs). We assessed differences between EW and NW respondents according to three categories related to health equity and social determinants of health: (1) demographics (e.g. race/ethnicity); (2) COVID-19 exposure risk pathways (e.g. ability to social distance); and (3) COVID-19 risk perceptions (e.g. perceived risk of contracting COVID-19). EWs were more likely to be Black or Hispanic than NWs and also had lower incomes and education levels on average. Unsurprisingly, EWs were substantially more likely to report working outside the home and less likely to report social distancing and wearing masks indoors as compared to NWs. EWs also perceived a slightly greater risk of contracting COVID-19. These findings, which we discuss in the context of persistent structural inequalities, systemic racism, and health inequities within the United States, highlight ways in which COVID-19 exacerbates existing socioeconomic vulnerabilities faced by EWs. 
    more » « less
  3. We investigated how tightness-looseness, reflecting strictness of social norms, of state of residence in the USA predicts behaviors and attitudes related to COVID-19. Because individual-level tightness may better capture current attitudes during the pandemic, whereas state-level archival measures reflect historical factors, we assessed the extent to which tightness-looseness at both levels predicted adherence to public health guidelines and biases toward outgroups related to COVID-19. In Spring 2020, 544 mTurk participants, primarily from the 13 tightest and 13 loosest states, completed survey questions about health behaviors in response to COVID-19, endorsement of future policy changes, feeling of responsibility for lives, and attitudes toward groups marginalized during the pandemic (i.e., Asians, older adults). State-level results indicated some associations with attitudes toward Asians and older adults, but effects were not robust. Results based on individuals’ ratings of the tightness of their state indicated that higher levels of perceived tightness were associated with higher levels of protective self-reported public health behaviors (e.g., mask wearing, handwashing) during COVID-19, more endorsement of future policy changes to contain the pandemic, higher reported feelings of responsibility for one’s life, and stronger negative attitudes toward Asians. The relations between tightness and health outcomes persisted after controlling for political attitudes and demographics. Thus, individual, more than state, tightness-looseness accounted for some degree of public health behaviors (unique contribution of individual tightness: R 2  = .034) and attitudes toward marginalized groups ( R 2  = .020) early during the COVID-19 pandemic. The implications of these findings for interventions to support behavior change or combat anti-Asian bias are discussed. 
    more » « less
  4. During the COVID‐19 pandemic, families have experienced unprecedented financial and social disruptions. We studied the impact of preexisting psychosocial factors and pandemic‐related financial and social disruptions in relation to family well‐being amongN = 4091 adolescents and parents during early summer 2020, participating in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSMStudy. Poorer family well‐being was linked to prepandemic psychosocial and financial adversity and was associated with pandemic‐related material hardship and social disruptions to routines. Parental alcohol use increased risk for worsening of family relationships, while a greater endorsement of coping strategies was mainly associated with overall better family well‐being. Financial and mental health support may be critical for family well‐being during and after a widespread crisis, such as the COVID‐19 pandemic.

     
    more » « less
  5. Triberti, Stefano (Ed.)

    Differences in national responses to COVID-19 have been associated with the cultural value of collectivism. The present research builds on these findings by examining the relationship between collectivism at the individual level and adherence to public health recommendations to combat COVID-19 during the pre-vaccination stage of the pandemic, and examines different characteristics of collectivism (i.e., concern for community, trust in institutions, perceived social norms) as potential psychological mechanisms that could explain greater compliance. A study with a cross-section of American participants (N= 530) examined the relationship between collectivism and opting-in to digital contact tracing (DCT) and wearing face coverings in the general population. More collectivistic individuals were more likely to comply with public health interventions than less collectivistic individuals. While collectivism was positively associated with the three potential psychological mechanisms, only perceived social norms about the proportion of people performing the public health interventions explained the relationship between collectivism and compliance with both public health interventions. This research identifies specific pathways by which collectivism can lead to compliance with community-benefiting public health behaviors to combat contagious diseases and highlights the role of cultural orientation in shaping individuals’ decisions that involve a tension between individual cost and community benefit.

     
    more » « less