skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2022

Title: Polycomb group protein SCML2 interacts with the Hippo pathway effector YAP1
Sex comb on midleg-like-2 (SCML2), a conserved polycomb group protein, functions as a transcriptional repressor. SCML2 binds monomethylated lysine residues on histones and regulates homeotic gene expression during development in mammals and the fly. Using proteomic approaches, we have identified SCML2 as a binding partner of the YAP1 protein complexes isolated from nuclei of prostate cancer cell lines. Both SCML2 and YAP1 are known to regulate basic cellular biology, including stem cell maintenance and carcinogenesis. Our western blot analysis showed that, unlike androgen receptor (AR)-negative cancerous and non-cancerous prostate epithelium, AR-positive cell lines express the high levels of SCML2, suggesting a possible link between androgen hormonal signaling and SCML2. In addition, our immunofluorescence imaging revealed that androgen hormone signaling promoted the subcellular localization of SCML2 and YAP1 proteins compared with mock control. Enzalutamide, a potent pharmacological inhibitor of AR, significantly prevented the subcellular distribution ofYAP1 and SCML2. Consistent with this observation, our proximity ligation assay demonstrated that androgen also regulated the physical interaction between SCML2 and YAP1proteins that occurred primarily in cell nuclei. Enzalutamide also prevented protein-protein interaction between YAP and SCML2. Besides, our GST-pulldown assay revealed that SCML2 and proteins physically interact with each other in the test tube. more » Furthermore, our promoter-reporter assay showed that transfection of two different SCML2 siRNA enhanced the activation of the YAP-responsive promoter-reporter gene four-fold compared to mock siRNA control. These observations suggest that the interaction between SCML2 and YAP1 is biologically functional and crucial in human physiology and disease. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1832022
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10324315
Journal Name:
Molecular biology of the cell
Volume:
32
Issue:
22
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
P1150
ISSN:
1939-4586
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Cell-cell interaction is critical for tissue development and repair, immunological responses, and cancer cell metastasis. The tyrosine kinase EPHA3 (erythropoietin‑producing hepatocellular carcinoma cell surface type-A receptor 3) regulates cell-cell interaction, cell differentiation, and cancer cell survival. Previously, our published study indicated that the theSTK4-encoded MST1 signaling, a core kinase component of the Hippo pathway, suppressedEPHA3 expression in the prostate cancer cell models. However, the mechanism is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that the YAP1 and TEAD1 proteins, critical nuclear effectors of the Hippo pathway, mediate EPHA3 expression. First, we showed that AR-positive cell lines express the highest levels of EPHA3more »and its ligand, ephrin-A5, transcripts compared with other EPH family members. Second, we demonstrated the induction of MST1/STK4attenuated the EPHA3 protein and transcripts, consistent with our initial observation. Next, we demonstrated that the knockdown of YAP1 by siRNA suppressed EPHA3 protein and mRNA expression. Similarly, the silencing of the TEAD1-4 proteins, critical mediators of YAP1-dependent gene transcription, revealed that the TEAD1 is a crucial inducer of EPHA3expression. Moreover, bioinformatics tools allowed the identification of three putative TEAD binding sites (p<0.001) in the promoter region of the EPHA3 gene. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-aided EPHA3 knockout significantly (p<0.01), decreased cell growth in monolayer and sphere formation in 3D cultures, and caused androgen-independent cells to become sensitive to enzalutamide, a potent direct inhibitor of AR activity. These observations suggest that the YAP/TEAD1 transcriptionally regulates EPHA3 and its cellular biology.« less
  2. The Hippo pathway controls cell-cell interaction and organ size by regulating cell proliferation. The study aimed to determine whether Hippo/YAP and NF-kappa B/RELA signaling interact. Here, we have demonstrated that native YAP1/TEAD and RELA proteins biochemically and functionally interact with each other in human LNCaP and C4-2 cell lines. Our co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), western blot (WB), and proximity ligation assay (PLA) showed that endogenous YAP/TEAD and RELA physically interact within the cell. Our immunofluorescence assays revealed that the expression of YAP1 and RELA proteins overlapped in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Combined treatment of cells with RANKL (receptor activator of nuclearmore »factor-kappa Î’ ligand) and androgen hormone enhanced YAP1 and RELA colocalization and interaction, as demonstrated by co-IP/WB experiments. Moreover, our PLA confirmed that co-treatment of cells with androgen and SDF1a (stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha) or RANKL increased YAP1 and RELA interaction cytoplasm and nucleus compared with controls. Our promoter-reporter assays showed that the knockdown of YAP1 by siRNA significantly reduced the activity of an NF-Kappa B responsive promoter-reporter gene. We also showed that controlled expression of MST1/STK4, a potent inhibitor of YAP1, attenuated the NF-Kappa B promoter reporter activity. Our unbiased bioinformatics analysis of the chromatin immunoprecipitation data has revealed that YAP/TEAD and NF-kappa B signaling regulates several genes. These findings suggest that interaction between the Hippo/YAP and NF-Kappa B/RELA plays a critical role in broad cellular biology.« less
  3. The transcriptional co-activator YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1) is a critical nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway. The Hippo pathway regulates cell growth, cell motility, cell migration, and carcinogenesis, but poorly defined mechanism. We investigated biochemical and functional interactions between YAP1 and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B/RELA subunit in prostate cancer cell models. We demonstrated that endogenous YAP1 and RELA form protein complexes in the cell, as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting. Compared with control, we found that combined treatment of cells with androgen and SDF-1a (stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha) or RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand) enhanced themore »protein-protein interaction between YAP1 and RELA, as showed by proximity ligation assay. Our confocal microscopy experiment further showed that combined SDF-1aand androgen treatment promoted the YAP1 and RELA colocalization instead of single-agent treatment. Moreover, our promoter-reporter and RNAi experiments showed that knockdown of YAP1 or TEAD, a key mediator of the YAP transcription, significantly reduced the NF-Kappa B promoter-reporter gene activity. Also, disruption of YAP1 activity attenuated the TEAD-RELA interaction. Furthermore, the controlled expression of MST1/STK4, a potent inhibitor of YAP1, attenuated the NF-Kappa B-promoter reporter activity. Additionally, our unbiased bioinformatics analysis of the exiting ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) data sets identified several genes that are likely co-regulated by the YAP1/TEAD and NF-Kappa B/RELA transcription factors. These findings suggest that cooperative androgen and cytokine signaling regulates Hippo/YAP and NF-Kappa B interaction. Thus, the YAP1/TEAD and NF-Kappa B/RELA interaction may have critical roles in cellular biology and human diseases.« less
  4. The transcriptional coactivator YAP1 (yes-associated protein 1) is a critical nuclear effector of the Hippo pathway. The serine/threonine protein kinases STK3/4 and LATS1/2, core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate and inhibit YAP1 nuclear localization. Previously, we reported that the interaction of nuclear YAP1 with androgen receptor (AR) might play a critical role in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic relapse (Kuser-Abali et al., Nat. Commun. 2015). Here, we investigated the regulation of YAP1 by androgens in isogenic, androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen non-responsive C4-2 prostate cancer cell models. We demonstrated that androgen suppressed the inhibitory phospho-Ser127 site on YAP1 in LNCaPmore »cells, but the effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127 was modest in C4-2 cells. In agreement with this observation, androgen increased the presence of nuclear YAP1 in LNCaP cells, whereas regardless of androgen exposure the YAP1 protein was primarily expressed in C4-2 cell nuclei. We also demonstrated that androgen exposure suppressed the levels of phospho-Ser127 induced by okadaic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatases PP1 and PP2A. Moreover, the pharmacological inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling by enzalutamide reversed the inhibitory effects of androgen on phospho-Ser127, which coincided with the inhibition of YAP1 nuclear localization. Similarly, the genetic inhibition of AR signaling by small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced phospho-Ser127 levels. Additionally, the silencing of the STK3/4 and LATS1/2 signaling by siRNA resulted in increases in YAP1 protein levels. Furthermore, our analysis of the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) prostate adenocarcinoma data set indicates that the levels of YAP1 and AR mRNA expression were positively correlated in prostate cancer clinical samples. These observations suggest that AR signaling promotes YAP1 nuclear localization by suppressing phospho-Ser127, possibly through the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and supporting a new mechanism of YAP1 regulation and YAP1-mediated cancer cell growth and survival.« less
  5. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) regulate all aspects of RNA biogenesis from transcription, splicing, and translation to degradation, and they have a critical role in cellular homeostasis and functional diversity. Recent studies have indicated that altered expressions of RBPs are associated with many human diseases ranging from neurologic disorders to cancer. The transcriptional coregulator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1), a critical nuclear effector of the mammalian Hippo pathway, regulates cell fate, cell contact, metabolism, and developmental processes. This study demonstrates a link between YAP1 and nucleophosmin1 (NPM1) protein. NPM1 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates many cellular activities, including ribosome biogenesis, RNAmore »processing, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and genomic stability. We identified NPM1 from YAP1 protein complexes of androgen-responsive human cancer cells using proteomics approaches. Our proximity ligation assay demonstrated that YAP1 and NPM1 physically interacted with each other. The interaction between YAP1 and NPM1 occurred in cell nuclei and was regulated by androgen hormone signaling. In addition, our GST-pulldown assay demonstrated that NPM1 formed a protein complex with the proline-rich domain of YAP1. Furthermore, our enhanced RNA interactome capture (eRIC) assay showed that androgen also regulated the interaction of RBPs to polyA+ mRNA within the cell. Consistent with this observation, our eRIC assay combined with the mass spectrometry method enabled us to identify distinct RBP patterns in human cancer cells that are genetically related but phenotypically different. These observations indicate that global alterations of RBPs under changing environmental conditions may have essential roles in cellular physiology and disease biology.« less