The genes that encode the α- and β-chain subunits of vertebrate hemoglobin have served as a model system for elucidating general principles of gene family evolution, but little is known about patterns of evolution in amniotes other than mammals and birds. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the α- and β-globin gene clusters in sauropsids (archosaurs and nonavian reptiles). The objectives were to characterize changes in the size and membership composition of the α- and β-globin gene families within and among the major sauropsid lineages, to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the sauropsid α- and β-globin genes, to resolve orthologous relationships, and to reconstruct evolutionary changes in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Our comparisons revealed contrasting patterns of evolution in the unlinked α- and β-globin gene clusters. In the α-globin gene cluster, which has remained in the ancestral chromosomal location, evolutionary changes in gene content are attributable to the differential retention of paralogous gene copies that were present in the common ancestor of tetrapods. In the β-globin gene cluster, which was translocated to a new chromosomal location, evolutionary changes in gene content are attributable to differential gene gains (via lineage-specific duplication events) and gene losses (via lineage-specificmore »
This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2023
A peroxisomal heterodimeric enzyme is involved in benzaldehyde synthesis in plants
Abstract Benzaldehyde, the simplest aromatic aldehyde, is one of the most wide-spread volatiles that serves as a pollinator attractant, flavor, and antifungal compound. However, the enzyme responsible for its formation in plants remains unknown. Using a combination of in vivo stable isotope labeling, classical biochemical, proteomics and genetic approaches, we show that in petunia benzaldehyde is synthesized via the β-oxidative pathway in peroxisomes by a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of α and β subunits, which belong to the NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold superfamily. Both subunits are alone catalytically inactive but, when mixed in equal amounts, form an active enzyme, which exhibits strict substrate specificity towards benzoyl-CoA and uses NADPH as a cofactor. Alpha subunits can form functional heterodimers with phylogenetically distant β subunits, but not all β subunits partner with α subunits, at least in Arabidopsis. Analysis of spatial, developmental and rhythmic expression of genes encoding α and β subunits revealed that expression of the gene for the α subunit likely plays a key role in regulating benzaldehyde biosynthesis.
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- Nature Communications
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- National Science Foundation
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